o Scope of the Project
o Available Environment Resources
o Available Skilled human Resources
o Organization Experience
A study conducted by KPMG Pete Marwick found these causes of software runaways:
o Project Objectives Not Fully Specified (51%)
o Bad Planning and Estimating (48%)
o Technology New to the Organization (45%)
o Inadequate/No Project Management Methodology (42%)
o Insufficient Senior Staff on the Team (42%)
o Poor Performance by Suppliers of Hardware/Software (42%)
Function Point Analysis (FPA):
3-Point Software Testing Estimation Technique is based on statistical methods in which each testing task is broken down into sub tasks and then three types on estimation are done on each tasks.The formula used by this technique is:
Test Estimate = P + (4*N) + E / 6
N = Negative Scenarios
E = Exceptional Scenarios
Standard deviation for the technique is calculated as,
Standard Deviation (SD) = (N – E)/6
Use-Case Point Method is based on the use cases where we calculate the unadjusted actor weights and unadjusted use case weights to determine the software testing estimation.
Unadjusted actor weights = total no. of actors (positive, negative and exceptional)
Unadjusted use case weight = total no. of use cases.
Unadjusted use case point = Unadjusted actor weights + Unadjusted use case weight
Adjusted use case point = Unadjusted use case point * [0.65+ (0.01 * 50]
Total Effort = Adjusted use case point * 2
In this approach Estimation can be done based on previous experience (Domain, Test Level, Test Type), It is informal method of Test Estimation, but reliable.Expert based Techniques:
Industry Experts (Senior People) Estimates Test Process based on their Industry Experience, Study and Industry standards.Tips for Test Estimation
Include some buffer Time, which is realistic. Using Buffer time tasks can be adjusted and better Test coverage is possible, but don’t include too much buffer time.
Test Design depends on Requirements, and scope of the Project, but Defect Reporting & Tracking depends on strength of Development.
Accommodation, Hardware Configurations, Technical Support also Considerable factors, It influences test execution process.
Consider Project’s scope, Scope depends on Customer business, and User groups, generally Financial Applications have more scope than ERP Application.
Note: Now a days Quality is important for every Software Application.
Consider Test Types, example Functional Testing, Performance Testing, and Usability Testing etc…