SAP Interview Questions – Part 4
As a reference table, a system containing all the valid currencies is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the currency key format. This field is called as reference field. The assignment of the field containing currency amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the currency of the amount.
2. A field containing quantity amounts (data type QUAN) must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. Explain?
As a reference table, a system table containing all the valid quantity units is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the format or quantity units (data type UNIT). This field is called as reference field.
The assignment of the field containing quantity amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the quantity unit of the amount.
3. What is the significance of Technical settings (specified while creating a table in the data dictionary)?
By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database. The technical settings allows us to
• Optimize storage space requirements.
• Table access behavior.
• Buffering required.
• Changes to entries logged.
4. What is a Table attribute?
The table’s attributes determine who is responsible for maintaining a table and which types of access are allowed for the table. The most important table attributes are:
• Delivery class.
• Table maintenance allowed.
• Activation type.
5. What is the significance of Delivery Class?
• The delivery class controls the degree to which the SAP or the customer is responsible for table maintenance.
• Whether SAP provides the table with or without contents.
• Determines the table type.
• Determines how the table behaves when it is first installed, at upgrade, when it is transported, and when a client copy is performed.
6. What is the max. no. Of structures that can be included in a table or structure.
7. What are two methods of modifying SAP standard tables?
• Append Structures and
• Customizing Includes.
8. What is the difference between a Substructure and an Append Structure?
• In case of a substructure, the reference originates in the table itself, in the form of a statement include….
• In case of an append structure, the table itself remains unchanged and the reference originates in the append structure.
9. To how many tables can an append structure be assigned.
10. If a table that is to be extended contains a long field, we cannot use append structures why?
Long fields in a table must always be located in the end, as the last field of the table. If a table has an append structure the append line must also be on the last field of the table.
11. Can we include customizing include or an append structure with Pooled or Cluster tables?
12. What are the two ways for restricting the value range for a domain?
• By specifying fixed values.
• By stipulating a value table.
13. Structures can contain data only during the runtime of a program (T/F)
14. What are the aggregate objects in the Dictionary?
• Match Code.
• Lock Object.
15. What are base tables of an aggregate object?
The tables making up an aggregate object (primary and secondary) are called aggregate object.
16. What are the 2 other types of Views, which are not allowed in Release 3.0?
• Structure Views.
• Entity Views.
17. What is a Match Code?
Match code is a tool to help us to search for data records in the system. Match Codes are an efficient and user-friendly search aid where key of a record is unknown.
18. What are the two levels in defining a Match Code?
• Match Code Object.
• Match Code Id.
19. What is the max no of match code Id’s that can be defined for one Match code object?
A match code Id is a one character ID that can be a letter or a number.
20. Can we define our own Match Code ID’s for SAP Matchcodes?
Yes, the number 0 to 9 are reserved for us to create our own Match Code Ids for a SAP defined Matchcode object.
21. What is an Update type with reference to a Match code ID?
If the data in one of the base tables of a matchcode ID changes, the matchcode data has to be updated. The update type stipulates when the matchcode is to be updated and how it is to be done. The update type also specifies which method is to be used for Building matchcodes. You must specify the update type when you define a matchcode ID.
22. Can matchcode object contain Ids with different update types?
23. What are the update types possible?
The following update types are possible:
• Update type A: The matchcode data is updated asynchronously to database changes.
• Update type S: The matchcode data is updated synchronously to database changes.
• Update type P: The matchcode data is updated by the application program.
• Update type I: Access to the matchcode data is managed using a database view.
• Update type L: Access to the matchcode is achieved by calling a function module.
24. What are the two different ways of building a match code object?
A match code can be built in two different ways:
• Logical structure: The matchcode data is set up temporarily at the moment when the match code is accessed. (Update type I, k).
• Physical Structure: The match code data is physically stored in a separate table in the database. (Update type A, S, P).
25. What are the differences between a Database index and a match code?
• Match code can contain fields from several tables whereas an index can contain fields from only one table.
• Match code objects can be built on transparent tables and pooled and cluster tables.
26. What is the function of a Domain?
• A domain describes the technical settings of a table field.
• A domain defines a value range, which sets the permissible data values for the fields, which refers to this domain.
• A single domain can be used as basis for any number of fields that are identical in structure.
27. Can you delete a domain, which is being used by data elements?
28. What are conversion routines?
• Non-standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines.
29. What is the function of a data element?
A data element describes the role played by a domain in a technical context. A data element contains semantic information.
30. Can a domain, assigned to a data element be changed?
Yes. We can do so by just overwriting the entry in the field domain.
31. Can you delete data element, which is being used by table fields.
32. Can you define a field without a data element?
Yes. If you want to specify no data element and therefore no domain for a field, you can enter data type and field length and a short text directly in the table maintenance.
33. What are null values?
If the value of a field in a table is undefined or unknown, it is called a null value.
34. What is the difference between a structure and a table?
Structures are constructed the almost the same way as tables, the only difference using that no database table is generated from them.
35. The data of a view is not physically stored, but derived from one or more tables (t/f)
36. What is a view?
A view is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e., the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables.
37. How many types of Views are there?
• Database View
• Help View
• Projection View
• Maintenance View
38. What is Locking?
When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronized by a lock mechanism.
39. What is database utility?
Database utility is the interface between the ABAP/4 Dictionary and the underlying the SAP system.
40. What are the basic functions of Database utility?
The basic functions of database utility are:
• Create database objects.
• Delete database objects.
• Adjust database objects to changed ABAP/4 dictionary definition.
41. What is Repository Info. Systems?
It is a tool with which you can make data stored in the ABAP/4 Dictionary available.
42. Name some drawbacks of SAP:
Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
43. What is Bex?
Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.
44. What are variables?
Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.
45. What is AWB?
What is its purpose?AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information warehousing.
46. What is the significance of ODS in BIW?
An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
47. What are the different types of source system?
SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.
48. What is Extractor?
Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.
49. Describe how SAP handles Memory Management?
ST02 / ST03 In general via table buffers, you could go into the whole Work Process, roll in, roll out, heap (private) memory, etc. However just as a Unix or DBA admin would know, is you look this up when needed for the exact specifics.
50. Describe where they would look at the buffer statistics, and what steps they would use to adjust them?
ST02, RZ10 …
51. Describe how to setup a printer in SAP or where they would look to research why a user/users can not print?
SPAD, SP01, SM50, SU01 …
52. Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements?
YES. eg:- ITAB LIKE SPFLI.here we are referening to a data object(SPFLI) not data element. What are the different types of data dictionary objects? tables, structures, views, domains, data elements, lock objects, Match code objects.
53. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
STEP 1: CONVERTING THE LEGACY SYSTEM DATA TO A FLAT FILE to internal table CALLED “CONVERSION”.STEP 2: TRANSFERING THE FLAT FILE INTO SAP SYSTEM CALLED “SAP DATA TRANSFER”.STEP 3: DEPENDING UPON THE BDC TYPEi)call transaction(Write the program explicity)ii) create sessions (sessions are created and processed.if success data will transfer).
54. What are the problems in processing batch input sessions and How is batch input process different from processing online?
PROBLEMS:i) If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue(log remains). However if session is processed we may delete it manually.
ii)if session processing fails data will not be transferred to SAP database table.
55. What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program?
Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure, you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: EXTRACT. When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program, the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset EXTRACT HEADER. When you extract the data, the record is filled with the current values of the corresponding fields. As soon as the system has processed the first EXTRACT statement for a field group , the structure of the corresponding extract record in the extract dataset is fixed. You can no longer insert new fields into the field groups and HEADER. If you try to modify one of the field groups afterwards and use it in another EXTRACT statement, a runtime error occurs. By processing EXTRACT statements several times using different field groups, you fill the extract dataset with records of different length and structure. Since you can modify field groups dynamically up to their first usage in an EXTRACT statement, extract datasets provide the advantage that you need not determine the structure at the beginning of the program.
56. Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the data base physically?
NO. TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE DICTIONARY AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE,EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA AND FIELDS.
57. What is the step by step process to create a table in data dictionary?
Step 1: creating domains(data type, field length, range).Step 2: creating data elements(properties and type for a table field).Step 3: creating tables(SE11).
58. What is the difference between updated project and end to end project? ExplainAnswer1:Some organisations select to implement SAP module by module, thus gets updated as per their convenience / schedule. This is called as updated project.
Some organisations simply plan all integrated functional modules and decide to go-live with all functional modules and take their entire operations on SAP. This is called as End to End SAP implementation project.
Answer2:Upgrade Project is a project where in SAP is already in place and it is the version upgrade from a lower end to a higher version.
End to End project is a project where SAP is implemented for the first time.
59. What is Ranking order in automatic payment programme ?
Its the priority assigned to each house bank which helps Automatic Payement program choose the house bank for payment in case there are more than one bank satisfying the payment program.
If a payment program ends up selecting more than one(say 4) bank for payment, the ranking of the banks helps it select one bank from the list of (say 4) selected banks.
60. What is SAP APO?
SAP APO stands for Advanced Planner and Optimizer, which is one area of SCM and application component of MySAP product. Its is designed to provide solutions for companies in Demand planning, network design, supply network planning, production planning and global available to promise, transportation and scheduling.
Answer2:Prior to SCM4.0 (-APO3.1) APO was a system, now from SCM4.0 APO is a function of SCM not a system as SCM now includes ECH and CM
61. What are the support tickets given in SAP fico module?
please give some examples.Support tickets are basically the problems that arise in day to day usage of SAP. So any sap fico consultant who is resolving the day to day production issues is actually supporting the tickets.
62. How is bank reconciliation handled in SAP?
The following are the steps for BRS:1. Create Bank Master Data – This can be created through T.Code FI01 or you can also create the house bank through IMG/FA/Bank accounting/Bank account2. Define House Bank3. Set up Bank selection payment programe- IMG/FA/ARAP/BT/AUTOIP/PM/Bank selection for payment prg.a. setup all co codes for payment transaction – Customer and vendorsb.setup paying co codes for payment transactionsc.setup payment method per countryd.setup payment method per co code for payment transactione.setup bank determination for payment transaction
Please go for Cheque mangement using T code FCHI (IMG/FA/ARAP/BT/OP/AutoOp/PaymentMedia/ CheckManagement) and for void reasons FCHV. You can create Bank Reconcilliation statement by TC FF67 (SAP/AC/Treasury/CashManagement/Incomings /ManualBankStatement) . Don’t forget to keep the opening Balance as zero. Use FBEA for post process.
All the steps together will lead to (FF67) Bank reconciliation statement.
63. How do you configure electronic bank statement?A
nswer1:Following is the sequence of configuration to be done for Electronis Bank Statment(EBS):1. create Tranaction types( which helps you group all the house baks with same External transaction code).2. assign them to house banks.3 create and define posting rule keys .4 assign them to external transaction codes.external transaction codes are bank specific codes for buisness tranactions( which it issues in each EBS) each one for each type of payment. eg. transfer order, foreign transfer,bill of exchange etc.5 define posting specification for G/L posting as well as subledger posting6. define account symbols(which determines the G/L account to be posted to) and assign them to posting keys.
Answer2:1. Create account symbols2. Create gl accounts ans assign t account symbols3. Create posting keys:4. Posting rules5. Assing external transactions
64. How do you configure manual bank statement?
Configuration is required during electronic bank statement not in manual bank statement. In manual bank statement you just have to enter the data on screen and save it.
65. What is ERP?
ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
66. Different types of ERP?
SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.
67. What is SAP?
SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
68. Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?
Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.
69. Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?
There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
70. Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?
Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
71. What is IDES?
International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
72. What is WF and its importance?
Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
73. What is SAP R/3?
A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
74. What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
75. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).
76. Explain open SQL Vs native SQL?
ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
77. What are datasets?
The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
78. What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?
Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: – Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
79. What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3?
Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
80. How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?
In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that thepeople understand the business processes and how they integrate.
81. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?
OLAP – On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.
82. What is “Extended Star Schema” and how did it emerge?
The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
83. Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction dataMeta Data:
Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data.Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies.Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
84. What are the manufacturing cost of a production?
Material cost + Productions cost = Manufacturing cost
85. What is the difference between stock transfer between two plants belongs to same company code and to that of different company code?
In 1st case it is called as intra company stock transfer and the 2nd case is inter company stock transfer.
Stock Transfer between plants of same company code only includes inventory movement without any pricing and so called Stock Transfer Order where Stock Transfer between plants of different company code is same as a purchase order as along with the inventory there is also accounts transfer (pricing) involved.
86. In real time, How listing and exclusion is used?
Listing and exclusion is used in chemical and pharma industries for ex:-Particular customer is not having a valid license of selling some chemical/Medicines and he is ordering the same. in this case listing and exclusion is usefull
87. What is the schema you use in Time Management?
88. What is the work relation between SAP-MM, SD and FICO modules?
SAP is the integration of all the modules and the topics are very relevant to each other because basically its management skill set group. From manufacturing the product / goods / services to reaching the customer. All the transaction process is depending on sales area, sales doc, item proposals, shipping, delivery and billing.
89. In SAP-HR, What is the landscape of your project?
Landscape in SAP consists the following:1. IDES = Training Server2. Development Server* Configuration (200 client)* Sandbox (210 client)* Data Change (220 client)3. Quality Server* Standby (300 client)* Testing (310 client)4. Production Server* Pre-Production (400 client)* Real Production (500 client)
90. What is the role of ABAPers? What is the Work Bench?
Abaper is a application programmer who retrieves the data from the database and show it to the end-user with the help of report, out of three layers of SAP the abaper position is on Application Layer in which SAP programs are develop and then transported to the Production server…
Workbench… The ABAP Workbench contains several tools that allow you to edit specific repository objects, like ABAP Editor, Menu Painter etc…
91. How to integrate MM With Fico?
Answer1:By using transaction code OBYC we can get the details of MM, Fico integration.
Answer2:Go to IMG settings in Financial accounting and do the configuration for MM-FI settings
92. What is difference between business area or cost centre?
Business area is a place where the product or the produced components are valued in group or for the total transactions carried out, Right from procurement, production and sales of goods.
Where as Cost centre is a particular area where the production or the project is taken up and expenditure is identified separately with a separate GL account
93. How to create Tax Calculation Procedure?
Answer1:Tax calculation procedures based on the countries depended. One country is using deferent of tax procedures. We are creating new country also and at what type calculation procedures present is running on the country and it is assigned which country used.
Answer2:Tax calculation procedures based on the country wise using and which country is used at what percent and it is used on the country. We are creating new country also at what percent it is used and it is assigned to using of this country.
94. What is the difference between business area and profit center?
Business area is where the total business is valuated as a whole Whereas Profit centre is an area where the company/work place allows the outside agency to use its machinery for external profits (Ex: A CNC machine which can run 24 hrs a day is utilized in our company for 15 hrs and the balance 9 hrs is let out for addition to the company’s profit) is known as Profit Centre.
95. How do you create movement types?
A movement type can be created using T code OMJJ. Copying an existing movement type and modifying the field contents can create a new movement type.The SAP system is delivered with some pre-defined movement types from 100 to 899. 900 onwards can be used for customized movement types.
96. What is meant by access sequence? When it is used?
Condition type has an access sequence assigned to it which determines which tables to access for data and in what sequence. This has a sequence of table based on the most specific to most generic. It can be used for any new condition type creation.
97. How does the PO pick up the pricing schema?
The pricing procedure assigned to a vendor has a calculation schema attached to it. This schema defines the various conditions’ pre-requisite, calculation & sequence in the PO. Generally, only one type of pricing procedure is followed for all the vendors.
98. What are the types of special stocks available?-
Consignment stock – vendor- Components provided to vendor- Project stock- Consignment stock – customer- Pipeline material- Orders on hand
99. What are the types of inforecords?-
Standard- Pipeline- Consignment- Subcontracting
100. What is meant by consignment stock?
Consignment stock is the material which is lying in the premises but is not owned by the company. It has no value assigned to it until it is taken into own stock. Once it is used in production (or) to be sold, it is taken into own stock.
101. What are the steps involved in consignment cycle?
Consignment cycle is similar to a standard purchase cycle. The difference it that no accounting document is created at the time of goods receipts only QTY is updated.It is settled once the same is utilized.
Tell me about the subcontracting cycle.When the material is sent for subcontracting i.e. some value addition, it is converted into a different material. It needs a BOM to define the components of the finished item being received.
102. How is scrap accounted in subcontracting?
The scrap or the process loss can be adjusted while doing a quality inspection of the material received after subcontracting.
103. How are the byproducts taken care of in subcontracting?
Byproducts can be taken care of by defining them in the BOM Tell me about the various movement types and usage.
104. What is the difference between a contract and a scheduling agreement?
A scheduling agreement can be made for Consignment, Subcontracting and stock transfer. A contract, also known as a blanket PO, can be made for standard items and can be restricted to a Value or QTY.
105. How does the system calculate taxes?
Based on the calculation schema of that condition and based on access sequence assigned to it.
106. What are the cutover activities performed in final preparation phase?
This activity involves- Master data upload for objects like customer masters including partner function assignment, customer material info, pricing, outputs and credit masters.