SAP Interview Questions – Part 16

1. What is chart of account? What is the relevance of defining chart of account?

It is the top level  financial structure, contains the GL Accounts we define the all the accounts and one chart of accounts assign to company code and one chart of accounts will assign to many company codes . It is list of Gl accounts and  it contains account no , account name, language, length, cost element, blocking information that controls the how an account functions and how a gl account created in company code . COA Key.

2.  What is account group? What does it control?

IT determines the which fields you need to configure on the GL master record. It is necessary to have at least 2, one for B/S and another one for P&L accounts. It controls the number ranges of GL. The Status fields of the master record of GL Belong to company code area.

3.  What is posting key? What is its role?

It controls the line item of GL entry debit and credit.

4.  What is business area?

Organizational unit of external accounting that corresponds to a specific business segment or area of responsibility in a company. Financial statements can be created for business areas for internal purposes. They are primarily used to facilitate external segment reporting across company codes covering the main operation of a company (product line, Branches). The Business area may be the branch of the company or product lines it deals with

5.  While defining chart of account, there is field “manual creaation of cost element” and “automatic creation of cost element”, what is it?

Generally when ever we are creating cost elements we can create some of exependitures manually some automatically so we can create manually cost elements in defining chart of accounts.

6. After creating a customer/vendor, how can we check that under which account group we have configured this customer/vendor?

We can check through customer group and vendor group it was created by ours when we are creating  vendor and customer groups.

7. How the system will know that april is your first posting period?

Yes the system will find out april was first posting period. While configuring fiscal year we giving april to 1 may to 2, june to 3, like this system will identify april was the first posting period.

8. Define the term “fiscal year” , “posting period  varient” & ” field status varient”.

FSGV controls the additional account assignments and other fields that can be posted at the line item level for GL a/c. FSGV can be  control at three level i.e.,
1) In OBC4 (ch of a/c’s) – which controls the screen for a particular GL a/c group,
2) Posting Keys – which controls the screen for a particular posting key transaction is taken, &

9.Accounting Groups – which controls the screen for a particular account group i.e., customer group or vendor group.

Posting period variant which controls posting periods, both   normal and special periods are open for each company code. The posting period is independent of fiscal year variant.

10. How many Normal and Special periods will be there in fiscal year, why do u use special periods?

12 Normal posting period and 4 special periods are in the fiscal year which can be used for posting tax and audit adjustments to a closed fiscal year.

11.Where do you open and close periods?

PPV is used to open and close the periods based on a/c types considering GL Accounts. Tr. Code. OB52.

12.What do you enter in Company code Global settings?

4 digit Alphanumeric key.
Name of the company

13.What is document type, and what does it control? Examples.

Document type is nothing vouchers containing line items. Several business transac! tions can be identified within a particular document type.
It controls the document number ranges.
It controls the Header part of document
IT controls the line item level of the document
Helps filing of physical document

14.What is posting key and what does it control?

These are special classification keys. Two character numerical key it controls the entry of line items.
Posting key determines Account type, Debit/credit posting, Field status of transaction.

15. What is field status group, what does it control?

FSG is mandatory field in ! GL Creation. You use this field to define which fields are displayed when you post business transactions to a G/L account.
A field may have one of the following statuses.
– Suppressed
– Display
– Optional
– Required

16. What is chart of account and how many charts of accounts can be assigned to a company?

Chart of account is a list of all G/L accounts used by one or several company codes.For each G/L account, the chart of accounts contains the account number, account name, and the information that controls how an account functions and how a G/L account is created in a Company code.
You have to assign a chart of accounts to each company code. This chart of accounts is the Operating chart of accounts and is used for the daily postings in this company code.
You have the following options when using multiple company codes.You can use the same chart of accounts for all company codesIf the company codes all have the same requirements for the chart of accounts set up, assign all of the individual company codes to the same chart of accounts. This could be the case if all company codes are in the same country.
In addition to the operating chart of accounts, you can use two additional charts of accounts If the individual company codes need different charts of accounts, you can assign up to two charts of accounts in addition to the operating chart of accounts. This could be the case if company codes lie in multiple countries.
The use of different charts of accounts has no effect on the balance sheet and profit and loss statement. When creating the balance sheet or the profit and loss statement, you can choose whether to balance the co! mpany codes which use different charts of accounts together or separately.

17. What does definition of a chart of account contains?

chart of account key
Maintenance language
Length of the GL Account Number
Controlling Integration
Group chart of accounts (Consolidation)
Block Indicator

18. Can one COA be assigned to several companies?

yes. One COA can be assigned to several companies.

19.What is account group and what does it control?

Account group determines which fields you can configure on the G/L master record. It is necessary to have at least two one for B/S and another one for P&L a/c.
It controls the Number ranges of GL A/C.The status of fields of the master record of GL belongs to company code area.

20.What is reconciliation account; can you directly enter documents in that a/c?

When you p! ost items to a subsidiary ledger, the system automatically posts the same data to the general ledger. Each subsidiary ledger has one or more reconciliation accounts in the general ledger.
We can’t use reconciliation account for direct postings.

21.How do you control field status of GL master records and from where do you control!

Field status variant is maintained all FSGs.

22.What are the segments of GL master record?

– COA Segment
A/C group
Nature of account
Short text
GL a/c long text
Trading partner
Group Account Number
Company code segment
Account currency
Reconciliation a/c for a/c type

23.What does Field status group assigned to a GL master record controls?

It controls the account assignments that are made to the account. Specifically the field status group controls whether postings to cost centers, internal orders, profitability segments and so on are required, not allowed (suppressed), or optional.

24.What is Country and operational chart of account? Why do you use group chart of account?

Operational chart of account – Day to day activities It is mandatory.
Country COA – It’s used for legal specific requirement of each country. It’s additional and optional.
Group COA used for consolidation of Company codes. This is for group consolidation purpose.

25.What are all the segments in a Customer/Vendor master record?

Segments in Customer          Segments in Vendor
General Data segment          General data segment
Company code segment          Company code segment
Sales area segment            Purchasing organization Segment

26 What is open line item management? What do you mean by clearing open line items?

Open item management is further reconciliation function. OIM allows you to display the open and cleared items and amounts in an account. OIM should be used if an offsetting entry is made for every line item posted in the account. The a/c is reconciled and cleared against another account. Ex. Salary clearing account and GR/IR Clearing account.

27.What is residual payment and part payment?

Residual payment it clears original invoice with incoming amount and create new line item for remaining outstanding amount.Partial payment it leaves the original invoice amount and creates new
line item for incoming amount.

28.What is internal and external number ranges?

Internal Number Ranges: Doc. No will be provided by the system automatically in serial order allotting the next available progressive number. The number must be in numerical.
External Number ranges: Doc. No will be given manually by the end user. System will not lock no automatically in this case. User can pick the number randomly. Number may be an alpha numeric.

29.Where to assign activity type in cost centers?  OR how to link cost centers & activity types?

There is no direct assignment.  You plan the output for a cost center first in kp26.   Then you’ve to plan the value of that cost center which you budget for a period in kp06.   Planned Activity expenditure / Planned Actvty qty gives yoa planned act rate which you can use to valuate your activity confirmations in mfg ordrs.   You can also define your own prices,but you have to run the price revaluation if you want to revaluate your actual activity prices.

30. For stat. key figure what is the significance of sender & receiver cost elements & cost centers?

Stat key fig are not real account assignments.  In simple traditionl terms it is the base to allocate or define praportions with which the cost is allocated.  SKFs are used to calculate the debit on a receiver object.  These values can be used for assessing common costs which are used by all the other cost centers.

31.  How SKF works .. Kindly give me T Codes Also.

You create & plan SKF.Create using KK01 & PLAN the parameters of SKF in KP46

32.Software Life Cycle,

it is nothing but Road Map – five phases  like, Project Preparation, Blue print, Realisation, Final preparation and Go-live support.

33: In GL master we have a option “Balance in local currency” and “Account currency”.What does it mean?

Account currency is that the GL account in which currency do you want to maintain. if you decided that you want maintain in company code currency, you can post any currency in that account.
If not, you want to maintain separate currency for that GL then exchange rate difference will come because the conversion rate.Balance in local currency – some GL account can’t be maintain on open item basis and can’t in foreign currency like clearing account and discount account etc., in such case you can assign this indicator to show the balance in local currency.

34. In movement type(MM), what is value & quantity string I know it updates values and quantities in GL with mix of valuvation class, transaction key modifier and GL A/c. But how does it work when doing a mvt type?

Basically, the system does not know which GL has to be updated with what. here, we are giving a direction to the system to update the data.

35.Whether any FI document will be created during PO(Purchase order)?If pl mention the entry also?

There is no document that is created in FI side during PO. But in controlling there can  be a commitment posting to a Cost Center. The offsetting entry is posted at the time of GR.

36.What are various types of servers in SAP R/3?

The Typical SAP landscape looks something like figure 1.4 below:

38.Maximum no. of dunning levels are created?

9 levels maximum.

39.In how many ways APP  is configured?

Tr Code: FBZP

40.What is diff between AAM,Recurring entries,Sample doccument?

Account Assignment Model:A reference for document entry that provides default values for posting business transactions. An account assignment model can contain any number of G/L account items and can be changed or supplemented at any time. In contrast to sample documents, the G/L account items for account assignment models may be incomplete.

Recurring Entries:A periodically recurring posting made by the recurring entry program on the basis of recurring entry original documents.The procedure is comparable with a standing order by which banks are authorized to debit rent payments, payment contributions or loan repayments.

Sample Documents:Special type of reference document. Data from this document is used to create default entries on the accounting document entry screen.

Unlike an accounting document, a sample document does not update transaction figures but merely serves as a data source for an accounting document.

41.Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?  Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, Business Applications and other selected applications.

42.Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?

There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.

43.Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?

Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.

44.What is IDES?

International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.

45.What is WF and its importance?

Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.

46.What is SAP R/3?

A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.

47.What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?

The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.

48.What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?

Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).

49.Explain open SQL vs native SQL?

ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.

50.What are datasets?

The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.

51.What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?

Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: – Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.

52.What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3?

Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? – Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.

53.How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?

In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the people understand the business processes and how they integrate.

54.What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?

OLAP – On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.

55.What is “Extended Star Schema†and how did it emerge?

The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.

56.Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data

Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.

57.Name some drawbacks of SAP

Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.

58.What is Bex?

Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.

59.What are variables?

Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.

60.What is AWB? What is its purpose?

AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.

61.What is the significance of ODS in BIW?

An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.

62.What are the different types of source system?

SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.

63.What is Extractor?

Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.

64.  While posting transaction, can we give cost centre / production order at time.

Yes it is posiiable , but in such situation cost centre will be real and production order is stastical.If you assign both cost center and Prd Order then since Prod. Order are real co object, Cost center entry would be statistical.

65.  Which Master data uploads will be done?

The question is not very clear. If you are talking about CO Master data. Then Cost center need to be uploaded. You can use Data Transfer Workbench or write abap for it.

66.  Can we run Payment Programe giving ( Hdfc  vendor detailes ) City bank in Payment run programe?

Yes can be possible , this can resolved through ranking order and bank optimization in FBZP.You use use further selection in proposal paramater, if you would like to filter the open item based on the city

67.  What does document header control?

Field status.

68. After entering a document can you delete the entry? Can you change the document? Which fields’ can/not is changed?

Document header cannont be changed, after posting the document you cannot  change. only if you want to change the document the reseversal entry.

69. What is a special GL transaction?

The transaction other than A/P and A/R is called the special g/l transaction for ex: Bills of exchange, Interest payable , aqusition

70. How do you reverse cleared documents?

By doing reversal posting.

71.  What is base line date? Why is that used? Can this be changed?

For paymentterms it is used. base line date is the due date.

72. How many statistical objects can be selected in when you post an FI document? Where CCtr, PCtr, OM are active?

Only two.

73.What is document type, and what does it control? Examples.

Document type is nothing vouchers containing line items. Several business transac! tions can be identified within a particular document type.
It controls the document number ranges.
It controls the Header part of document
IT controls the line item level of the document
Helps filing of physical document

74. What is posting key and what does it control?

These are special classification keys. Two character numerical key it controls the entry of line items.
Posting key determines Account type, Debit/credit posting, Field status of transaction.

75. What is open line item management? What do you mean by clearing open line items?

Open item management is further reconciliation function. OIM allows you to display the open and cleared items and amounts in an account. OIM should be used if an offsetting entry is made for every line item posted in the account. The a/c is reconciled and cleared against another account. Ex. Salary clearing account and GR/IR Clearing account.

76. What is residual payment and part payment?

Residual payment it clears original invoice with incoming amount and create new line item for remaining outstanding amount.Partial payment it leaves the original invoice amount and creates newline item for incoming amount.

77.What are the system fields? Explain?

The ABAP system fields are active in all ABAP programs. They are filled by the runtime environment, and you can query their values in a program to find out particular states of the system. Although they are variables, you should not assign your own values to them, since this may overwrite information that is important for the normal running of the program. However, there are some isolated cases in which you may need to overwrite a system variable. For example, by assigning a new value to the field SY-LSIND, you can control navigation within details lists.

78.What is SAP Script? What is the purpose of SAP Script? Difference between SAP Script and Report?

• SAP Script – It is the integrated text management system of the SAP R/3 System. Two types – PC Editor & Line Editor.
• Reports – It is the way to display data fetched from database table onto screen or directly output it to a printer. Two types – Classical and Interactive.

79.Under which menu path is the Test Workbench to be found, including in  earlier Releases?

The menu path is: Tools – ABAP Workbench – Test – Test Workbench.

80.I want to delete a BEx query that is in Production system through request.  Is anyone aware about it?

Have you tried the RSZDELETE transaction?

81.Errors while monitoring process chains.

During data loading. Apart from them, in process chains you add so many  process types, for example after loading data into Info Cube, you rollup data  into aggregates, now this rolling up of data into aggregates is a process type  which you keep after the process type for loading data into Cube. This rolling  up into aggregates might fail.
Another one is after you load data into ODS, you activate ODS data (another  process type) this might also fail.

82.Transitive Attributes?

Navigational attributes having nav attrthese nav attrs are called transitive  attrs

83.Navigational attribute?

Are used for drill down reporting (RRI).

84.Display attributes?

You can show DISPLAY attributes in a report, which are used only for  displaying.

85.Why does the number in the ‘Total’ column in the overview screen of  Transaction RSA7 differ from the number of data records that is displayed when  you call the detail view?

The number on the overview screen corresponds to the total of LUWs (see  also first question) that were written to the qRFC queue and that have not yet  been confirmed. The detail screen displays the records contained in the LUWs.  Both, the records belonging to the previous delta request and the records that  do not meet the selection conditions of the preceding delta init requests are  filtered out. Thus, only the records that are ready for the next delta request  are displayed on the detail screen. In the detail screen of Transaction RSA7, a  possibly existing customer exit is not taken into account.

86.Why does Transaction RSA7 still display LUWs on the overview screen after  successful delta loading?

Only when a new delta has been requested does the source system learn that  the previous delta was successfully loaded to the BW System. Then, the LUWs of  the previous delta may be confirmed (and also deleted). In the meantime, the  LUWs must be kept for a possible delta request repetition. In particular, the  number on the overview screen does not change when the first delta was loaded to  the BW System.

87.Why are selections not taken into account when the delta queue is filled?

Filtering according to selections takes place when the system reads from the  delta queue. This is necessary for reasons of performance.

88.Why is there a DataSource with ‘0’ records in RSA7 if delta exists and has  also been loaded successfully?

It is most likely that this is a DataSource that does not send delta data to the  BW System via the delta queue but directly via the extractor (delta for master  data using ALE change pointers). Such a DataSource should not be displayed in  RSA7. This error is corrected with BW 2.0B Support Package 11.

89.Why are the data in the delta queue although the V3 update was not  started?

Data was posted in background. Then, the records are updated directly in the  delta queue (RSA7). This happens in particular during automatic goods receipt  posting (MRRS). There is no duplicate transfer of records to the BW system. See  Note 417189.

90.Why does button ‘Repeatable’ on the RSA7 data details screen not only show  data loaded into BW during the last delta but also data that were newly added,  i.e. ‘pure’ delta records?

Was programmed in a way that the request in repeat mode fetches both  actually repeatable (old) data and new data from the source system.

91.I loaded several delta inits with various selections. For which one is the  delta loaded?

For delta, all selections made via delta inits are summed up. This means, a  delta for the ‘total’ of all delta initializations is loaded.

92.What does FACT Table contain?

A FactTable consists of KeyFigures.Each Fact Table can contain a maximum of 233 key figures.Dimension can contain up to 248 freely available characteristics.

93.How many dimensions are in a CUBE?

16 dimensions. (13 user defined & 3 system pre-defined [time, unit & data  packet])

94.What does SID Table contain?

SID keys linked with dimension table & master data tables (attributes, texts,  hierarchies)

95.hat are the levels of organizational units of Enterprise Structure in R/3?

The client is the highest level unit of the organizational units in Enterprise Structure in SAP R/3. The client is followed by the company code, which represents a unit with its own accounting, balance, and profit and loss (P&L). The next level of organizational units in Enterprise Structure is the plant, which represents an operational unit of a company.

96.Define Client. What is its importance in SAP?

A client can be defined as a person, company, or organization that purchases goods from another person, company, or organization. In terms of SAP, a client is defined as a unit that has its own master records and a set of tables. The client is important in SAP because it stores and maintains data about the organization where SAP is implemented.

97.What is Master data in MM module?

The master data in the MM module acts as reference data, defining various business entities and playing a key role in the core operation of the business.

98.How is master data important in MM module?

The master data in the MM module contains all of the basic information needed to manage material. The data is stored and sorted on the basis of different criteria, such as the descriptive nature of the material (size, dimension, and weight) and the control functions of the material (material type and industry sector). Apart from data maintained by the user, the master data also stores data that is automatically updated by the system (such as stock levels).

99. What is a Material Master file?

A material master file stores and maintains all of the information related to managing a material. The material master is sorted on the basis of different criteria.

100.Why are material master records used in SAP?

Material master records are used in the SAP R/3 system to manage material-specific data. The material information stored in material master records is used by all logistics areas in the SAP R/3 system. The material master records integrate all material-specific data into a single database object that eliminates the problem of data redundancy. Because material master records store data in a single database object, the same data can be shared by all departments, such as purchasing, inventory management, materials planning, and invoice verification.

101.How is the information of material master records updated?

You can manually update the information in the material master records, however, there are some exceptions for which the information can be updated by the SAP R/3 system only, for example, administrative data.

102. What data in material master is maintained at the client level?

The general data, i.e., the data applicable to the company as a whole, is stored at the client level.

103. What are the data in material master that are maintained at the company code level?

The data that is specific to a particular company and the plant and storage areas assigned to that company is maintained at the company code level.

104.   What are the plant-specific data in material?

The MRP data and forecast data are the plant-specific data in the material master.

105 What is the lot size attribute of a material?

The lot size attribute represents the reorder quantity for a material. A material can have a periodic, optimum, or static (fixed) lot size.




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