QA Interview Questions

Software Quality Assurance Interview Questions

1) What is Quality?

The degree to which a Component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or customer needs and expectations.

2) What is Quality Attribute?

A feature or characteristic that affects an item’s quality.

3) What is Software Quality?

The totality of functionality and features of a Software product that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

4) What is Software Quality Assurance?

All the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

5) What is Software Quality Control?

The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfil and verify Quality requirements of Software.

6) What is Quality Audit?

A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

7) What is Quality Management?
Quality Management is that aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

8) What is Verification?
Verification is intended to check that a product or system meets a set of initial design requirements, specifications.

9) What is Validation?
Validation is intended to check that development and verification procedures for a product or system that meets initial requirements, specifications.

10) What is Software Testing?

A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.

11) What is the relation between Quality and Testing?
Testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the system or application under test.

12) What is Static Testing?

Analyzing the program/code without executing it.

13) What is Dynamic Testing?

Testing Software through executing it.

14) What is Quality Gate?

A special milestone in a project. Quality gates are located between those phases of a project strongly depending on the outcome of a previous phase. A quality gate includes a formal check of the documents of the previous phase.

15) What is Software Usability Measurement Inventory?
A questionary-based usability test technique for measuring quality from the end user’s point of view.

16) What is Software Process Improvement?
A Program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization’s software processes and the results of such a program.

17) What is Systematic Test and Evaluation Process?

Systematic Test and Evaluation Process(STEP) is a methodology to measure the quality of a system. The process consists of a few activities, which includes developing test plan and strategy, test design, test execution and evaluation of test result.

18) What is ISO?

ISO means International organization for Standardization. It is a worldwide federation of national standard bodies that creates standards and enforces their application.

19) What is IEEE?

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is the world’s largest technical professional society. It provides standards for Power, Energy, Telecom, Information Technology and Aviation etc…. Industries.

20) What is CMM/CMMI?

A five level staged framework that describes the key elements of an effective software processs.

The Capability Maturity Model covers best practices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance.

Note: CMM scarped and CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) launched

21) What is Test Plan?

A document describing the scope,approach,resources and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks during contingency planning.

22) What is Test Control?

Test control describes any corrective actions taken as a result of information and metrics gathered and reported. Actions may cover any test activity and may affect any other software life cycle activity or task.

23) What is Test Monitoring?

Test Monitoring is done to know the Progress of the testing and Test Coverage.

24) What is Configuration Management?

A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements.

25) What is Configuration item?
An aggregation of hardware, software or both, that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process.

26) What is Test Policy?
A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.

27) What is Test Strategy?
Test Strategy is formal description of how a software product will be tested. A tested strategy is developed for all levels of testing.

28) What is SDLC?

SDLC(Software Developement Life Cycle) is the process used in project to develop software product. It describes how the development activities will be performed and how development phases follow each other.The main phases are Requirements gathering, Analysis,Design,Code/implementation and Release & maintenance.

29) What is STLC?
The process of testing software in a well planned and systematic way is known as Software Testing Life Cycle(STLC).

30) What is Test Design Technique?
Test Design technique is a process of selecting few Test Cases out of many with the likelihood of finding defects.

31) What is Test Execution?
Execution of Tests is accomplished by following the test documents (like Test Cases) in a methodical manner. As eaech test is executed, an entry is recorded in the test execution log to note that the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects.

32) What is Test Closure?
Test Closure is part of Software Test process. During test closure, Exit criteria is evaluated, all Quality work products are collected. And Test Summary report is prepared, test deliverables are sent to the customer.

33) What is Software Maintenance?
Software is deployed and support is provided to the customer to correct issues or to add enhancements.

34) What is Software Migration?
Migrating software from old technology to new technology is called Software migration.

35) What is Software Retirement?

Retiring the Old system and developing new system is called Software Retirement.

36) What is Test Documentation Standard?
Test documentation standard covers test documentation across the entire software testing life cycle.

It covers Organizational Test process documentations, Test Management process documentation, Dynamic Test Process documentation.

37) What is Base lined Document?

Document that have been formally reviewed and agreed upon. It serves as a basis for further development.

38) What is Version Control?

Version control allows different projects to use same source files at the same time it isolates work that is not ready to be shared by the rest of the project.It isolates work that shoud never be shared. It allows software engineers to continue development along a branch even when a line of development is frozen.

39) How to prevent Defects?  
Defects can be prevented through regular reviews and inspections before the software is given for Functional testing.

40) What are the Project Management Activities?
The following is a list of common project-management related activities:

– Setting goals
– Establishing timetables for the project.
– Monitoring the use of time for maximum efficiency.
– Estimating the resources, both material and human, required by the project and ensuring that they are distributed and used properly.
– Setting a budget for the project and keeping it within that budget.
– Organizing relevant documents and records.
– Analyzing the current conditions of the project and predicting future trends so as not to be caught off-guard by changes.
– Identifying potential risks to the project and developing risk managment plan.
– Managing the quality and finding ways to improve quality.
– Monitoring the closing stages of a project that is near completion.
– Facilitating communication among project members and between the project members and outside stakeholders.

41) What are the types of reviews in Software Testing?

1) Code review
2) Inspection
3) Walkthrough
4) Technical review

42) What is Approval?

Approving the process as complete and allow the project to proceed to the next level.

43) What is Software Bidding?

A proposal to develop new software is called Software Bidding.

44) What PIN document?

Project Initiation Note (PIN) document is prepared to estimate required technologies, required time and resources for developing new software.

45) What is Software Build?

Software build refers either to the process of converting source code files into standalone software artifact(s) that can be run on a computer, or the result of doing so. One of the most important steps of a software build is the compilation process where source code files are converted into executable code.

46) What is Software Version?

Software versioning is the process of assigning either unique version names or unique version numbers to unique states of software.

47) What is Build Version?

48) What is Traceability?
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test cases.

49) What are the different phases in Software Application Life Cycle Management?

Developement phase, Testing phase, Production phase

50) What is Live Testing?
51) What is Software Development Environment?
A Software Development Environment is the entire environment(applications,servers,network) that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development

52) What is Software Test Environment?
A testing environment is a setup of software and hardware on which the testing team is going to perform the testing of the newly built software. This setup consists of the physical setup which includes hardware, and logical setup that includes Server Operating system, client operating system, database server, front end running environment, browser (if web application), IIS (version on server side) or any other software components required to run the software.

53) What is Software Production Environment?

A Production Environment is everything that it takes for the software to go live.

54) What is Change Control?

Proposed changes to baselines must have some level of review. The impact of proposed changes must be identified and understood. When appropriate, the approval of the CCB, Key managers and project members must be obtained. Approved changes must be properly implemented after changes are made all affected parties must be notified.

55) What is Test Estimation?

An estimate is an approximation of Budget, Time and an approximate calculation of Quantity.

Considerable factors in Test estimation are
a) Scope of the project
b) Budget
c) Time
d) Available Environment Resources
e) Available Skilled human resources
f) Organization experience

56) How to Estimate Software test efforts?

Software Test efforts can be estimated using the following techniques
a) Function Point Analysis(FPA)
b) 3-Point Software Test Estimation
c) Use-Case Point method
d) Experienced based Techniques
e) Expert based Techniques

57) How Test metrics improve Software Quality?

– Test Metrics help gauging the progress, quality and health of a software testing effort.
– Metrics can also be leveraged to evaluate past performance, current status and envisage future trends. Effective Software metrics are
simple,objective,measurable,meaningful and have easily accessible underlying data.
– Metrics can provide a quick insight into the status of software testing efforts, hence resulting in better control through smart decision making.

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