Java Interview Questions – 20
1. What event results from the clicking of a button?
The ActionEvent event is generated as the result of the clicking of a button.
2. Which class is the immediate superclass of the Container class?
3. If a method is declared as protected, where may the method be accessed?
A protected method may only be accessed by classes or interfaces of the same package or by subclasses of the class in which it is declared.
4. What is the Collection interface?
The Collection interface provides support for the implementation of a mathematical bag – an unordered collection of objects that may contain duplicates.
5. What modifiers can be used with a local inner class?
A local inner class may be final or abstract.
6. What is the difference between static and non-static variables?
A static variable is associated with the class as a whole rather than with specific instances of a class.
Non-static variables take on unique values with each object instance.
7. Can an exception be rethrown?
Yes, an exception can be rethrown.
8. How can a GUI component handle its own events?
A component can handle its own events by implementing the required event-listener interface and adding itself as its own event listener.
9. How are the elements of a GridBagLayout organized?
The elements of a GridBagLayout are organized according to a grid. However, the elements are of different sizes and may occupy more than one row or column of the grid. In addition, the rows and columns may have different sizes.
10. What advantage do Java’s layout managers provide over traditional windowing systems?
Java uses layout managers to lay out components in a consistent manner across all windowing platforms. Since Java’s layout managers aren’t tied to absolute sizing and positioning, they are able to accomodate platform-specific differences among windowing systems.
11. When does the compiler supply a default constructor for a class?
The compiler supplies a default constructor for a class if no other constructors are provided.
12. What is the difference between the paint() and repaint() methods?
The paint() method supports painting via a Graphics object. The repaint() method is used to causepaint() to be invoked by the AWT painting thread.
13. What is the purpose of the File class?
The File class is used to create objects that provide access to the files and directories of a local file system.
14. When is the finally clause of a try-catch-finally statement executed?
The finally clause of the try-catch-finally statement is always executed unless the thread of execution terminates or an exception occurs within the execution of the finally clause.
15. How can the Checkbox class be used to create a radio button?
By associating Checkbox objects with a CheckboxGroup.
16. Which non-Unicode letter characters may be used as the first character of an identifier?
The non-Unicode letter characters $ and _ may appear as the first character of an identifier
17. What is the return type of a program’s main() method?
A program’s main() method has a void return type.
18. Which Math method is used to calculate the absolute value of a number?
The abs() method is used to calculate absolute values.
19. How does multithreading take place on a computer with a single CPU?
The operating system’s task scheduler allocates execution time to multiple tasks. By quickly switching between executing tasks, it creates the impression that tasks execute sequentially.
20. Name four Container classes.
Window, Frame, Dialog, FileDialog, Panel, Applet, or ScrollPane.
21. What is the difference between a Choice and a List?
A Choice is displayed in a compact form that requires you to pull it down to see the list of available choices. Only one item may be selected from a Choice.
A List may be displayed in such a way that several List items are visible. A List supports the selection of one or more List items.
22. Why are the methods of the Math class static?
So they can be invoked as if they are a mathematical code library.
23. What Checkbox method allows you to tell if a Checkbox is checked?
24. What class of exceptions are generated by the Java run-time system?
The Java runtime system generates RuntimeException and Error exceptions.
25. What class allows you to read objects directly from a stream?
The ObjectInputStream class supports the reading of objects from input streams.
26. What is the difference between a field variable and a local variable?
A field variable is a variable that is declared as a member of a class.
A local variable is a variable that is declared local to a method.
27. What restrictions are placed on method overloading?
Two methods may not have the same name and argument list but different return types.
28. What happens when you invoke a thread’s interrupt method while it is sleeping or waiting?
When a task’s interrupt() method is executed, the task enters the ready state. The next time the task enters the running state, an InterruptedException is thrown.
29. What is the relationship between a method’s throws clause and the exceptions that can be thrown during the method’s execution?
A method’s throws clause must declare any checked exceptions that are not caught within the body of the method.
30. What is the difference between the JDK 1.02 event model and the event-delegation model introduced with JDK 1.1?
The JDK 1.02 event model uses an event inheritance or bubbling approach. In this model, components are required to handle their own events. If they do not handle a particular event, the event is inherited by (or bubbled up to) the component’s container. The container then either handles the event or it is bubbled up to its container and so on, until the highest-level container has been tried.
In the event-delegation model, specific objects are designated as event handlers for GUI components. These objects implement event-listener interfaces. The event-delegation model is more efficient than the event-inheritance model because it eliminates the processing required to support the bubbling of unhandled events.
31. What is casting?
There are two types of casting, casting between primitive numeric types and casting between object references.
Casting between numeric types is used to convert larger values, such as double values, to smaller values, such as byte values.
Casting between object references is used to refer to an object by a compatible class, interface, or arraytype reference.
32. Under what conditions is an object’s finalize() method invoked by the garbage collector?
The garbage collector invokes an object’s finalize() method when it detects that the object has become unreachable.
33. How is it possible for two String objects with identical values not to be equal under the == operator?
The == operator compares two objects to determine if they are the same object in memory. It is possible for two String objects to have the same value, but located indifferent areas of memory.
34. What state is a thread in when it is executing?
An executing thread is in the running state.
35. What are the legal operands of the instanceof operator?
The left operand is an object reference or null value and the right operand is a class, interface, or arraytype.
36. What classes of exceptions may be thrown by a throw statement?
A throw statement may throw any expression that may be assigned to the Throwable type.
37. How are the elements of a GridBagLayout organized?
The elements of a GridBagLayout are of equal size and are laid out using the squares of a grid.
38. What is a void return type?
A void return type indicates that a method does not return a value.
39. What an I/O filter?
An I/O filter is an object that reads from one stream and writes to another, usually altering the data in some way as it is passed from one stream to another.
40. What are E and PI?
E is the base of the natural logarithm and PI is mathematical value pi.
41. What is the purpose of the enableEvents() method?
The enableEvents() method is used to enable an event for a particular object. Normally, an event is enabled when a listener is added to an object for a particular event.
The enableEvents() method is used by objects that handle events by overriding their event-dispatch methods.
42. Are true and false keywords?
The values true and false are not keywords.
43. What happens when you add a double value to a String?
The result is a String object.
44. What is a compilation unit?
A compilation unit is a Java source code file.
45. What interface must an object implement before it can be written to a stream as an object?
An object must implement the Serializable or Externalizable interface before it can be written to a stream as an object.
46. What is the difference between the File and RandomAccessFile classes?
The File class encapsulates the files and directories of the local file system.
The RandomAccessFile class provides the methods needed to directly access data contained in any part of a file.
47. How are this and super used?
this is used to refer to the current object instance.
super is used to refer to the variables and methods of the superclass of the current object instance.
48. What is your platform’s default character encoding?
If you are running Java on English Windows platforms, it is probably Cp1252. If you are running Java on English Solaris platforms, it is most likely 8859_1.
49. What is the difference between a public and a non-public class?
A public class may be accessed outside of its package.
A non-public class may not be accessed outside of its package.
50. Can try statements be nested?
Try statements may be tested.
51. Which package is always imported by default?
The java.lang package is always imported by default.
52. If an object is garbage collected, can it become reachable again?
Once an object is garbage collected, it ceases to exist. It can no longer become reachable again.
53. To what value is a variable of the boolean type automatically initialized?
The default value of the boolean type is false.
54. What is the Set interface?
The Set interface provides methods for accessing the elements of a finite mathematical set. Sets do not allow duplicate elements.
55. What interface is extended by AWT event listeners?
All AWT event listeners extend the java.util.EventListener interface.
56. What restrictions are placed on method overriding?
Overridden methods must have the same name, argument list, and return type.
The overriding method may not limit the access of the method it overrides.
The overriding method may not throw any exceptions that may not be thrown by the overridden method.
57. How can a dead thread be restarted?
A dead thread cannot be restarted.
58. What happens if an exception is not caught?
An uncaught exception results in the uncaughtException() method of the thread’s ThreadGroup being invoked, which eventually results in the termination of the program in which it is thrown.
59. Can an abstract class be final?
An abstract class may not be declared as final.
60. What is the ResourceBundle class?
The ResourceBundle class is used to store locale-specific resources that can be loaded by a program to tailor the program’s appearance to the particular locale in which it is being run.
61. What happens if a try-catch-finally statement does not have a catch clause to handle an exception that is thrown within the body of the try statement?
The exception propagates up to the next higher level try-catch statement (if any) or results in the program’s termination.
62. What is numeric promotion?
Numeric promotion is the conversion of a smaller numeric type to a larger numeric type, so that integer and floating-point operations may take place. In numerical promotion, byte, char, and short values are converted to int values. The int values are also converted to long values, if necessary. The long and float values are converted to double values, as required.
63. What is a layout manager?
A layout manager is an object that is used to organize components in a container.
64. Which arithmetic operations can result in the throwing of an ArithmeticException?
Integer / and % can result in the throwing of an ArithmeticException.
65. What are three ways in which a thread can enter the waiting state?
A thread can enter the waiting state by invoking its sleep() method, by blocking on I/O, by unsuccessfully attempting to acquire an object’s lock, or by invoking an object’s wait() method. It can also enter the waiting state by invoking its (deprecated) suspend() method.
66. What is the difference between a Scrollbar and a ScrollPane?
A Scrollbar is a Component, but not a Container. A ScrollPane is a Container.
A ScrollPane handles its own events and performs its own scrolling.
67. What is the difference between the prefix and postfix forms of the ++ operator?
The prefix form performs the increment operation and returns the value of the increment operation.
The postfix form returns the current value all of the expression and then performs the increment operation on that value.
68.What is the purpose of a statement block?
A statement block is used to organize a sequence of statements as a single statement group.
69. What is a Java package and how is it used?
A Java package is a naming context for classes and interfaces. A package is used to create a separate name space for groups of classes and interfaces.
Packages are also used to organize related classes and interfaces into a single API unit and to control accessibility to these classes and interfaces.
70. How does a try statement determine which catch clause should be used to handle an exception?
When an exception is thrown within the body of a try statement, the catch clauses of the try statement are examined in the order in which they appear. The first catch clause that is capable of handling the exception is executed. The remaining catch clauses are ignored.
71. What method must be implemented by all threads?
All tasks must implement the run() method, whether they are a subclass of Thread or implement theRunnable interface.
72. What methods are used to get and set the text label displayed by a Button object?
getLabel() and setLabel().
73. What modifiers may be used with a top-level class?
A top-level class may be public, abstract, or final.
74. What are synchronized methods and synchronized statements?
Synchronized methods are methods that are used to control access to an object. A thread only executes a synchronized method after it has acquired the lock for the method’s object or class.
Synchronized statements are similar to synchronized methods. A synchronized statement can only be executed after a thread has acquired the lock for the object or class referenced in the synchronized statement.
75. What are the two basic ways in which classes that can be run as threads may be defined?
A thread class may be declared as a subclass of Thread, or it may implement the Runnable interface.
76. What are the Object and Class classes used for?
The Object class is the highest-level class in the Java class hierarchy. The Class class is used to represent the classes and interfaces that are loaded by a Java program..
77. Which Component subclass is used for drawing and painting?
78. What are the problems faced by Java programmers who don’t use layout managers?
Without layout managers, Java programmers are faced with determining how their GUI will be displayed across multiple windowing systems and finding a common sizing and positioning that will work within the constraints imposed by each windowing system.
79. What makes J2EE suitable for distributed multitiered Applications?
The J2EE platform uses a multitiered distributed application model. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a J2EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered J2EE environment to which the application component belongs. The J2EE application parts are:
Client-tier components run on the client machine.
Web-tier components run on the J2EE server.
Business-tier components run on the J2EE server.
Enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server.
80. What do Enterprise JavaBeans components contain?
Enterprise JavaBeans components contains Business code, which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking, retail, or finance, is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. All the business code is contained inside an Enterprise Bean which receives data from client programs, processes it (if necessary), and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage, processes it (if necessary), and sends it back to the client program.
81. Is J2EE application only a web-based?
No, It depends on type of application that client wants. A J2EE application can be web-based or non-web-based. if an application client executes on the client machine, it is a non-web-based J2EE application. The J2EE application can provide a way for users to handle tasks such as J2EE system or application administration. It typically has a graphical user interface created from Swing or AWT APIs, or a command-line interface. When user request, it can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier.
82. Are JavaBeans J2EE components?
No. JavaBeans components are not considered J2EE components by the J2EE specification. They are written to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the J2EE server or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components written for the J2EE platform have instance variables and get and set methods for accessing the data in the instance variables. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation, but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.
83. How is the MVC design pattern used in Struts framework?
In the MVC design pattern, application flow is mediated by a central Controller. The Controller delegates requests to an appropriate handler. The handlers are tied to a Model, and each handler acts as an adapter between the request and the Model. The Model represents, or encapsulates, an application’s business logic or state. Control is usually then forwarded back through the Controller to the appropriate View. The forwarding can be determined by consulting a set of mappings, usually loaded from a database or configuration file. This provides a loose coupling between the View and Model, which can make an application significantly easier to create and maintain. Controller: Servlet controller which supplied by Struts itself; View: what you can see on the screen, a JSP page and presentation components; Model: System state and a business logic JavaBeans.
84. Is HTML page a web component?
No. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly, but are not considered web components by the J2EE specification. Even the server-side utility classes are not considered web components, either.
85. What is JAXP?
JAXP stands for Java API for XML. XML is a language for representing and describing text-based data which can be read and handled by any program or tool that uses XML APIs. It provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to perform those operations.
86. What is J2EE Connector?
The J2EE Connector API is used by J2EE tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged into any J2EE product. Each type of database or EIS has a different resource adapter. Note: A resource adapter is a software component that allows J2EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, there is typically a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system.
87. What can be considered as a web component?
J2EE Web components can be either servlets or JSP pages. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.
88. What is deployment descriptor?
A deployment descriptor is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) text-based file with an .xml extension that describes a component’s deployment settings. A J2EE application and each of its modules has its own deployment descriptor. For example, an enterprise bean module deployment descriptor declares transaction attributes and security authorizations
for an enterprise bean. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative, it can be changed without modifying the bean source code. At run time, the J2EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the component accordingly.
89. What is the EAR file?
An EAR file is a standard JAR file with an .ear extension, named from Enterprise ARchive file. A J2EE application with all of its modules is delivered in EAR file.
90. What is the container?
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform specific functionality that supports the component. Before a Web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a J2EE application and deployed into its container.
91. What are container services?
A container is a runtime support of a system-level entity. Containers provide components with services such as lifecycle management, security, deployment, and threading.
92.What is the web container?
Servlet and JSP containers are collectively referred to as Web containers. It manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for J2EE applications. Web components and their container run on the J2EE server.
93. Can an unreachable object become reachable again?
An unreachable object may become reachable again. This can happen when the object’s finalize() method is invoked and the object performs an operation which causes it to become accessible to reachable objects.
94. When is an object subject to garbage collection?
An object is subject to garbage collection when it becomes unreachable to the program in which it is used.
95. What is Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container?
It manages the execution of enterprise beans for J2EE applications.
Enterprise beans and their container run on the J2EE server.
96. What is a thin client?
A thin client is a lightweight interface to the application that does not have such operations like query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications.
97. What are types of J2EE clients?
Following are the types of J2EE clients:
Java Web Start-enabled rich clients, powered by Java Web Start technology.
Wireless clients, based on Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) technology.
98. What is Applet container?
IManages the execution of applets. Consists of a Web browser and Java Plugin running on the client together.
99. How do we package J2EE components?
J2EE components are packaged separately and bundled into a J2EE application for deployment. Each component, its related files such as GIF and HTML files or server-side utility classes, and a deployment descriptor are assembled into a module and added to the J2EE application. A J2EE application is composed of one or more enterprise bean,Web, or application client component modules. The final enterprise solution can use one J2EE application or be made up of two or more J2EE applications, depending on design requirements. A J2EE application and each of its modules has its own deployment descriptor. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes a component’s deployment settings.
100. What is JTA and JTS?
JTA is the abbreviation for the Java Transaction API. JTS is the abbreviation for the Jave Transaction Service. JTA provides a standard interface and allows you to demarcate transactions in a manner that is independent of the transaction manager implementation. The J2EE SDK implements the transaction manager with JTS. But your code doesn’t call the JTS methods directly. Instead, it invokes the JTA methods, which then call the lower-level JTS routines. Therefore, JTA is a high level transaction interface that your application uses to control transaction. and JTS is a low level transaction interface and ejb uses behind the scenes (client code doesn’t directly interact with JTS. It is based on object transaction service(OTS) which is part of CORBA.
101. What is JAAP?
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a J2EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. It is a standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework that extends the Java 2 platform security architecture to support user-based authorization.
102. What is Java Naming and Directory Service?
The JNDI provides naming and directory functionality. It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a J2EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object. Because JNDI is independent of any specific implementations, applications can use JNDI to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and
directory services such as LDAP, NDS, DNS, and NIS.
103. What is J2EE?
J2EE is an environment for developing and deploying enterprise applications. The J2EE platform consists of a set of services, application programming interfaces (APIs), and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, web-based applications.
104. What are the components of J2EE application?
A J2EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a J2EE application with its related classes and files and communicates with other components. The J2EE specification defines the following J2EE components:
Application clients and applets are client components.
Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages technology components are web components.
Enterprise JavaBeans components (enterprise beans) are business components.
Resource adapter components provided by EIS and tool vendors.
105. What is Struts?
A Web page development framework. Struts combines Java Servlets, Java Server Pages, custom tags, and message resources into a unified framework. It is a cooperative, synergistic platform, suitable for development teams, independent developers, and everyone between.