SAP Interview Questions – Part 2
As a reference table, a system containing all the valid currencies is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the currency key format. This field is called as reference field. The assignment of the field containing currency amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the currency of the amount.
2. A field containing quantity amounts (data type QUAN) must be assigned to a reference table and a reference field. Explain?
As a reference table, a system table containing all the valid quantity units is assigned or any other table, which contains a field with the format or quantity units (data type UNIT). This field is called as reference field.
The assignment of the field containing quantity amounts to the reference field is made at runtime. The value in the reference field determines the quantity unit of the amount.
3. What is the significance of Technical settings (specified while creating a table in the data dictionary)?
By specifying technical settings we can control how database tables are created in the database. The technical settings allows us to
• Optimize storage space requirements.
• Table access behavior.
• Buffering required.
• Changes to entries logged.
4. What is a Table attribute?
The table’s attributes determine who is responsible for maintaining a table and which types of access are allowed for the table. The most important table attributes are:
• Delivery class.
• Table maintenance allowed.
• Activation type.
5. What is the significance of Delivery Class?
• The delivery class controls the degree to which the SAP or the customer is responsible for table maintenance.
• Whether SAP provides the table with or without contents.
• Determines the table type.
• Determines how the table behaves when it is first installed, at upgrade, when it is transported, and when a client copy is performed.
6. What is the max. no. Of structures that can be included in a table or structure.
7. What are two methods of modifying SAP standard tables?
• Append Structures and
• Customizing Includes.
8. What is the difference between a Substructure and an Append Structure?
• In case of a substructure, the reference originates in the table itself, in the form of a statement include….
• In case of an append structure, the table itself remains unchanged and the reference originates in the append structure.
9. To how many tables can an append structure be assigned.
10. If a table that is to be extended contains a long field, we cannot use append structures why?
Long fields in a table must always be located in the end, as the last field of the table. If a table has an append structure the append line must also be on the last field of the table.
11. Can we include customizing include or an append structure with Pooled or Cluster tables?
12. What are the two ways for restricting the value range for a domain?
• By specifying fixed values.
• By stipulating a value table.
13. Structures can contain data only during the runtime of a program (T/F)
14. What are the aggregate objects in the Dictionary?
• Match Code.
• Lock Object.
15. What are base tables of an aggregate object?
The tables making up an aggregate object (primary and secondary) are called aggregate object.
16. The data of a view is not physically stored, but derived from one or more tables (t/f)
17. What are the 2 other types of Views, which are not allowed in Release 3.0?
• Structure Views.
• Entity Views.
18. What is a Match Code?
Match code is a tool to help us to search for data records in the system. Match Codes are an efficient and user-friendly search aid where key of a record is unknown.
19. What are the two levels in defining a Match Code?
• Match Code Object.
• Match Code Id.
20. What functions does a data dictionary perform?
In a data management system, the principal functions performed by the data dictionary are
• Management of data definitions.
• Provision of information for evaluation.
• Support for s/w development.
• Support form documentation.
• Ensuring that the data definitions are flexible and up-to-date.
21. What are the features of ABAP/4 Dictionary?
The most important features are:
• Integrated to aABAP/4 Development Workbench.
• Active in the runtime environment.
22. What are the uses of the information in the Data dictionary?
The following information is directly taken from the Data dictionary:
• Information on fields displayed with F1 help.
• Possible entries for fields displayed with F4 help.
• Matchcode and help views search utilities.
23. What are the basic objects of the data dictionary?
• Data elements
• Foreign Keys
24. What are the aggregate objects in the data dictionary?
• Match codes
• Lock objects.
25. In the ABAP/4 Dictionary Tables can be defined independent of the underlying database (T/F).
26. Can matchcode object contain Ids with different update types?
27. What are the update types possible?
The following update types are possible:
• Update type A: The matchcode data is updated asynchronously to database changes.
• Update type S: The matchcode data is updated synchronously to database changes.
• Update type P: The matchcode data is updated by the application program.
• Update type I: Access to the matchcode data is managed using a database view.
• Update type L: Access to the matchcode is achieved by calling a function module.
28. What are the two different ways of building a match code object?
A match code can be built in two different ways:
• Logical structure: The matchcode data is set up temporarily at the moment when the match code is accessed. (Update type I, k).
• Physical Structure: The match code data is physically stored in a separate table in the database. (Update type A, S, P).
29. What are the differences between a Database index and a match code?
• Match code can contain fields from several tables whereas an index can contain fields from only one table.
• Match code objects can be built on transparent tables and pooled and cluster tables.
30. What is the function of a Domain?
• A domain describes the technical settings of a table field.
• A domain defines a value range, which sets the permissible data values for the fields, which refers to this domain.
• A single domain can be used as basis for any number of fields that are identical in structure.
31. Can you delete a domain, which is being used by data elements?
32. What are conversion routines?
• Non-standard conversions from display format to sap internal format and vice-versa are implemented with so called conversion routines.
33. What is the function of a data element?
A data element describes the role played by a domain in a technical context. A data element contains semantic information.
34. Can a domain, assigned to a data element be changed?
Yes. We can do so by just overwriting the entry in the field domain.
35. Can you delete data element, which is being used by table fields.
36. Can you define a field without a data element?
Yes. If you want to specify no data element and therefore no domain for a field, you can enter data type and field length and a short text directly in the table maintenance.
37. What are null values?
If the value of a field in a table is undefined or unknown, it is called a null value.
38. What is the difference between a structure and a table?
Structures are constructed the almost the same way as tables, the only difference using that no database table is generated from them.
39. What is a view?
A view is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e., the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead being derived from one or more tables.
40.. How many types of Views are there?
• Database View
• Help View
• Projection View
• Maintenance View
41. What is Locking?
When two users simultaneously attempt to access the same data record, this is synchronized by a lock mechanism.
42. What is database utility?
Database utility is the interface between the ABAP/4 Dictionary and the underlying the SAP system.
43. What are the basic functions of Database utility?
The basic functions of database utility are:
• Create database objects.
• Delete database objects.
• Adjust database objects to changed ABAP/4 dictionary definition.
44. What is Repository Info. Systems?
It is a tool with which you can make data stored in the ABAP/4 Dictionary available.
45. Does every ABAP/4 have a modular structure?
46. What is Modularization and its benefits?
If the program contains the same or similar blocks of statements or it is required to process the same function several times, we can avoid redundancy by using modularization techniques. By modularizing the ABAP/4 programs we make them easy to read and improve their structure. Modularized programs are also easier to maintain and to update.
47. Name the ABAP/4 Modularization techniques.
• Source code module.
48. How can we create callable modules of program code within one ABAP/4 program?
• By defining Macros.
• By creating include programs in the library.
49. Is it possible to pass data to and from include programs explicitly?
No. If it is required to pass data to and from modules it is required to use subroutines or function modules.
50. What are subroutines?
Subroutines are program modules, which can be called from other ABAP/4 programs or within the same program.
51. What are the types of Subroutines?
• Internal Subroutines: The source code of the internal subroutines will be in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call).
• External Subroutines: The source code of the external subroutines will be in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure.
52. It is not possible to create an ABAP/4 program, which contains only Subroutines (T/F).
53. What are the different types of parameters?
Formal Parameters: Parameters, which are defined during the definition of subroutine with the FORM statement.
Actual Parameters: Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement.
54. How can one distinguish between different kinds of parameters?
• Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines.
• Output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.
55. What are the different methods of passing data?
• Calling by reference: During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter has no memory of its own, and we work with the field of the calling program within the subroutine. If we change the formal parameter, the field contents in the calling program also changes.
• Calling by value: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have memory of their own. Changes to the formal parameters have no effect on the actual parameters.
• Calling by value and result: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have their own memory space. Changes to the formal parameters are copied to the actual parameters at the end of the subroutine.
56. How can an internal table with Header line and one without header line be distinguished when passed to a subroutine?
Itab is used in the form and endform if the internal table is passed with a header line.
57. What should be declared explicitly in the corresponding ABAP/4 Statements to access internal tables without header lines & why?
Work Area. This is required as the Work Area is the interface for transferring data to and from the table.
58. A subroutine can be terminated unconditionally using EXIT. (T/F)
59. What is the difference between the function module and a normal ABAP/4 subroutine?
In contrast to normal subroutines function modules have uniquely defined interface. Declaring data as common parts is not possible for function modules. Function modules are stored in a central library.
60. What is a function group?
A function group is a collection of logically related modules that share global data with each other. All the modules in the group are included in the same main program. When an ABAP/4 program contains a CALL FUNCTION statement, the system loads the entire function group in with the program code at runtime. Every function module belongs to a function group.
61. What is the disadvantage of a call by reference?
During a call by reference damage or loss of data is not restricted to the subroutine, but will instantly lead to changes to the original data objects.
62. A function module can be called from a transaction screen outside an ABAP/4 program. (T/F).
63. What is an update task?
It is an SAP provided procedure for updating a database.
64. What happens if a function module runs in an update task?
The system performs the module processing asynchronously. Instead of carrying out the call immediately, the system waits until the next database update is triggered with the ‘COMMIT WORK’ command.
65. When a function module is activated syntax checking is performed automatically. (Y/N)
66. What is the use of the RAISING exception?
The raising exception determines whether the calling program will handle the exception itself or leave the exception to the system.
67. What is the difference between internal tables and extract datasets?
• The lines of an internal table always have the same structure. By using extract datasets, you can handle groups of data with different structure and get statistical figures from the grouped data.
• You have to define the structure of the internal table at the beginning. You need not define the structure of the extract dataset.
• In contrast to internal tables, the system partly compresses exact datasets when storing them. This reduces the storage space required.
• Internal tables require special work area for interface whereas extract datasets do not need a special work area for interface.
68. Different types of ERP?
SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.
69.Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?
Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.
70. Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?
There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
71. Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?
Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
72. What is IDES?
International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
73.What is the Business Work Flow of IDES?
Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
74.What is SAP R/3?
A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
75. What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
76. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).
77.Explain open SQL vs native SQL?
ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
78. What are datasets?
The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
79.What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?
Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: – Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
80.What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3? Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports?
Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
81. How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?
In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
82. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?
OLAP – On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.
83. What is “Extended Star Schema” and how did it emerge?
The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
84.Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data
Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
85.Name some drawbacks of SAP
Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
86.What is PROTECT & ENDPROTECT?
PROTECT & ENDPROTECT is a command used to protect a paragraph against a page break.
87.What are the different types of SAPScript symbols?
4 different types of SAPScript symbols are as follows.
88.What are the different window types in SAPScript?
MAIN – Main window
VAR – Variable window
CONST – Constant window
89.How many MAIN windows are allowed in SAPscript?
99 main windows are allowed in SAPscript
90.How do you control printer functions from SAPscript?
By using PRINT-CONTROL command.
91.How can we omit a leading sign and a leading zero in SAPScript?
Leading sign can be omitted by using ‘S’ with the sapscript symbol i.e. &symbol(S)&. Leading zero can be omitted by using ‘Z’ with the sapscript symbol i.e. &symbol(Z)&.
92.How to debug a SAPScript?
To switch on the debugger for SAPScript use the menu path Utilities->Debugger or use the program RSTXDBUG.
93.What are the different function modules used in SAPScript?
94.What is an internal table?
Internal table is a temporary table stored in the RAM of the application server. It gets created during the program execution and gets deleted once the program ends.
Different types of internal table.
95.What is the difference between COLLECT and APPEND statements?
APPEND statement adds a new record to the end of the internal table. COLLECT statement adds a new record to the end of the internal table if there is no record already exists in the internal table with the same key. If a record exits in the internal table with the same key then COLLECT adds the numeric values in the work area to the existing record.
96.How do you delete duplicate records from internal table?
Use SORT and DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES statements to delete the duplicate records from internal table.
97.How do you find number of records present in internal table?
Use DESCRIBE TABLE statement.
98.What is the difference between REFRESH and FREE statements?
REFRESH clears the contents of the internal table but the memory remains allocated. FREE clears the contents of the internal table and releases the memory space.
99.What are the different control break statements available inside a loop?
AT FIRST / ENDAT
AT LAST / ENDAT
AT NEW / ENDAT
AT END OF / ENDAT
ON CHANGE OF / ENDON
100.What is the purpose of AT FIRST and AT LAST?
AT FIRST is used to write headings and loop initialization process. AT LAST is used to write grand totals and loop termination processing.
101.What is the purpose of SUM statement?
SUM statement is used to calculate the totals for the rows of a control level.
102.Can we use ON CHANGE OF between SELECT and ENDSELECT?
Yes. It can be used in any loop construct. It can be used within LOOP AT/ENDLOOP, SELECT/ENDSELECT, DO/ENDDO and WHILE/ENDWHILE.