SAP Interview Questions – Part 6
1.What is meant by scales?
We can fix a price in the info record for range of qty from 1-100 price Rs.100 & if the order qty is 101- 500- the prices is Rs.90.Also scales cannot be used directly in PO but can be pulled into the PO from various master data like info record, quota arrangement etc.
2.What is the procedure to delete materials permanently from Material Master?
The process for deleting the materials permanently from material master is by using transaction code MM70 and the navigation is Material Master>Other>Reorganization>Material>Choose. Then build variant with selection range of material master records to be selected for deletion and maintain run parameters and then execute.
Using Transaction Code MM71 navigate as follows Material Master>Other>Reorganization and then build the second variant, maintain run parameters and execute. It is also important to remove the records manually form info records, PO, PR reservation etc for successful deletion of the material.
3.What MRP procedures are available in MM-CBP (Consumption Based Planning)?
Various material planning methods are used in MRP (Material Requirements Planning).
1. Reorder point procedure (VM)
2. Forecast-based planning (VV) 3. Time-Phased materials planning (PD)
These are specified in material creation (MM01) under the MRP 1 tab.
4.Explain the function OBYC?
The Function OBYC stands for Configure Automatic Postings. When the system settings are entered for the Inventory Management and Invoice Verification transactions the automatic posting to G/L accounts. Postings are made to G/L accounts automatically in the case of Invoice Verification and Inventory Management where the transactions are relevant to Financial and Cost Accounting.
5.What is the procedure to make the period indicator in the MRP2 view as “P”?
To make the period indicator in the MRP2 view as “P” the transaction variant SHD0 and then SE93 is used.
6.What is the procedure to make the Source List automatically appear in Material Master as default if maintained at plant level using OME5?
The maintained source list requirement in OME5 was not maintained the source list for the material, Po can’t be released. So it is required to maintain source list for all materials in the plant where the indicator is set if maintain source list at plant level is maintained or it can make use of info record to do so automatically.
7.List some info records types?
The lists of Info Records Types are Standard, Consignment, Subcontracting and Pipeline.
8.Explain what is consignment stock?
The Consignment stock is a stock that is supplied by the vendor is in the companies premises with the company having no liability for the same. The liability for the company will only be affected when the goods are issued from the consignment stock for use.
9.Is it possible to have scales in a quotation?
No, it is not possible to have scales in a quotation
10.What is the subcontracting cycle?
The Subcontracting Cycle is that when Po is created with item category L, the goods is transferred to subcontractor by 541 movements. For this movement note no accounting documents take place. When GR is done automatically, 543 movements’ takes place which take care of the consumption of components from stock.
11.Explain the procedure to create PR or PO by MRP?
The procedure to create PR is according to the safety stock mentioned for the material or can be triggered from a requirement. For creating a PO, you need to have the scheduling agreement in place .After the MRP is run the schedule lines are generated which is nothing but the PO.
12.What types of special stocks are available?
Special Stocks that are available are Subcontracting, consignments, pipeline, project, sales order, RTP, stock transfer, and the third party.
13.Is it possible to have scales in a quotation?
No, it is not possible to have scales in a quotation
14.Explain the steps that are involved in consignment cycle?
The steps that are involved in consignment cycle is by creating consignment info record with proper tax code, maintain output condition record for KONS, no invoice verification done, create Po with item category K, process GR, but settlement is done through MRKO transaction.
15.Explain the difference between a contract and a scheduling agreement?
The Contract agreement or the Outline Agreement is that create the centrally contract (cross-plant) where it can maintain different pricing conditions for each and every plant. It creates the Release Order with reference to Outline Agreement. No detailed delivery schedule can be made in the Release Order. No Release documentation is created. Only time-dependent conditions can be created, Some Item Category ‘M’ and ‘W’ can be used.
Whereas the Scheduling Agreement is the Plant Location what must be entered in the Scheduling Agreement. Its no need to create any other purchasing document except for delivery schedule line via Transaction ME38 or MRP running (with the appropriate setting of Source List). Delivery Schedule line items are created subject to your specific requirement. It can create both Scheduling Agreement with or without release of Documentation (subject to the Document Type LP or LPA) with the selection of either FRC or JIT delivery schedule. Either time-dependent or time-independent conditions can be created subject to the customizing in the Document Type of the Scheduling Agreement. Item Category ‘M’ and ‘W’ can not be used.
16.What is the difference between release procedure with classification and without classification and when are they used?
The release procedure with classification deals with the purchase requisition it can be released both at item level and at the header level. Coming to release procedure without classification can also be used for purchase requisition which is used for item level release only. All other external documents cannot be released with classification These two procedures are mutually exclusive to say, it has to be decided in favor of one of them only.
17.In what way does the Subcontracting was cared by the byproducts?
The Byproducts take care of subcontracting in BOM for the header.
18.What is the procedure to give specifications for developments?
The procedure to give specifications are normally prepared for the business requirement document in which we specify what is required, what field and tables have to be referred for the required development.
19.Where to Get the Goods Movement Type List?
Step 1) Run spro command/TC
Step 2) Then move to “SAP Reference IMG” screen
Step 3) Then navigate following path:
IMG –> Materials Management –> Inventory Management and Physical Inventory –> Movement Types –> Copy, Change Movement types
Here with “Copy, Change Movement types” option a help tutorial is available (rectangular blue colour icon). In that go to “Further information” section where you can find a big list of movement types with some brief explanation.
20.Where the schedule margin key is customized?
You define the order float in the scheduling margin key, The scheduling margin key is copied from the material master. The float before production or float after production and the release period are defined in the scheduling margin key
For Customizing for Shop Floor Control, by choosing Operations –> Scheduling –> Define Scheduling Margin Key .
The scheduling margin key is assigned to the material ( MRP area in the material master) and is transferred when the production order is created. These values can be changed in the production order.
21.What is the function of OBYC?
Function of the OBYC stand for Configure Automatic Postings. In this step, you enter the system settings for Inventory Management and Invoice Verification transactions for automatic postings to G/L accounts.
Postings are made to G/L accounts automatically in the case of Invoice Verification and Inventory Management transactions relevant to Financial and Cost Accounting.
For example, Posting lines are created in the Stock account and Consumption account.
22.Tell me what is *make to order*?
Make-to-order production is a process in which a product is individually manufactured for a particular customer. In contrast to mass production for an unspecified market where a material is manufactured many times, in make-to-order production a material is created only once though the same or a similar production process might be repeated at a later time.
In global trade, you often need to process several different kinds of transactions at the same time. The Trading Execution Workbench (TEW) provides a central cockpit where traders can process trading contracts and their subcomponents, such as purchase orders and sales orders and follow-on documents. In addition, TEW automates a large part of the data entry, making processing quicker, easier, and more error-free.
23.How to delete a material completely?
Try MMDE transaction but be careful this will remove all material from Client.
24.What is the use of Tables in MM. i.e. How the tables get created?
Through SE11 you can create a new Table. In MM if you create a Material Master MARA, MARM, MARC,MARD, MBEW & MVKE will updated. In Vendor Master LFA1, LFB1 & LFM1 will be updated. The same applies to EKKO,EKPO for P.O, MSEG & MKPF for MIGO & RBKP for MIRO.
25.If in any error, only the message no. ! or the table no. is shown , then how to resolve the error using message no. or table no.?
Contact ABAP or BASIS person to resolve this.
26.How to create new transaction codes?
In transaction code SE93 you can create, Change & Display a Transaction Code.
27. What are the types of special stocks available?
Subcontracting, consignement, pipeline, project, sales order, RTP, stock transfer ,third party.
28. What are the types of inforecords?
Standard, consignment,subcontracting & pipeline.
29. What is meant by consignment stock?
The stock supplied by the vendor is in the companies premises with the company having no liability for the same. The liability for the company will only be affected when the goods are issued from the consignment stock for use.
30. What are the steps involved in consignment cycle?
Create consignment info record with proper tax code, create Po with item category K, maintain output condition record for KONS, process GR, no invoice verification done, but settlement is done through MRKO transaction.
31. Tell me about the subcontracting cycle.
The Po is created with item category L , the goods is transferred to subcontractor by 541 movemet. for this movement note no accounting docs take place. When GR is done automatically, 543 movemnt takes place which take care of the consumption of components from stock.
32. How are the byproducts taken care of in subcontracting?
You can add these by products in the BOM for the header matl.
33. What is meant by scales?
Can scales be used in standard purchase order? You can fix a price in the info record for a say qty from 1-100 price RS150 & if the order qty is 101- 500- the prices is 140 . Scales cannot be used directly in PO but can be pulled into the PO from various master data like info record, quota arrangement.
34. What is the difference between a contract and a scheduling agreement?
With regard to Outline Agreement:
1. You can create the centrally contract (cross-plant) where you can maintain different pricing conditions for each and every plant
2. You have to create the Release Order with reference to Outline Agreement.
3. No detailed delivery schedule can be made in the Release Order.
4. No Release documentation is created.
5. Only time-dependent conditions can be created.
6. Some Item Category ‘M’ and ‘W’ can be used.
With regard to Scheduling Agreement:
1. The Plant Location must be entered in the Scheduling Agreement.
2. We do not have to create any other purchasing document except for delivery schedule line via Transaction ME38 or MRP running (with the appropriate setting of Source List).
3. Delivery Schedule line items are created subject to your specific requirement.
4. Can create both Scheduling Agreement with and without Release Documentation (subject to the Document Type LP or LPA) with the selection of either FRC or JIT delivery schedule.
5. Either time-dependent or time-independent conditions can be created subject to the customizing in the Document Type of the Scheduling Agreement.
6. Item Category ‘M’ and ‘W’ can not be used.
35. What is meant by batches? How can the batches be searched?
batch is a subdivision of your stock of a material having the same characteristics.
– food production uses batches to indicate the day of production.
– paint production uses batches based on production date and the used ingredients. It is very hard to reproduce the same color in exactly the same way at two different moments.
– ore may be divided in batches based on their mineral content.
You can search batches using the standard search facility (match code, key F4) based on the naming convention of the batches or, if you use batch classification, based on the characteristics of the batches.
36. What are the settings required for quota arrangement?
To set up a quota arrangement for the procurement of a material, proceed as follows:
Master data -> Quota arrangement -> Maintain, enter the material and plant number, press ENTER to display the overview screen for the quota arrangement periods, Enter a validity period for quota arrangement, Enter date until which the quota arrangement is valid. The start date is calculated by the system. Press ENTER .
Select the quota arrangement and choose Goto -> Item overview to display the item overview screen of the quota arrangement. Enter a quota arrangement item for each source of supply you want to include in the quota arrangement.
You must enter the following data.
– Procurement type
– Special procurement type, Enter k in the S column, for example, if a consignment arrangement for the material exists with the vendor.
– Vendor number
– Procurement plant (supplying plant):
– Quota column, enter the quota assigned to each item.
Press ENTER .
The percentage distribution of the quotas is calculated and displayed automatically by the system.
Save the quota arrangement. The system assigns a number to the quota arrangement item automatically
37. How are free items managed in a PO?
you need to tick the tem as free in the PO. The price will be zero for such PO’s.
38. What are the differences between release procedure with classification and release procedure without classification? When are they used?
Release procedure with classification means the Purchase requsition can be released both at item level & at the header level. Release procedure with out classification can also be used for PR which is used for item level release only. all other external documents cannot be relesed with classification. The two procedures are mutually exclusive (that is to say, you must decide in favor of one of them only – you cannot use both).
39. Is it possible to have a release procedure without classification for a PO?
40. What is the maximum number of levels available in SAP?
Did not get this question …pls clarify.
41. Is it possible to have scales in a quotation?
42. What is GR blocked stock? When it can be used?
Whenever you are not sure about the quality of the product received, you can put in GR blocked stock.
43. How are the variations in subcontracting taken care of in SAP?
44. How to give specifications for developments?
We normally prepare a business requirement document in which we specify what is required. what field & tables have to be referred for the required development.
45. How to create PR or PO by MRP?
The PR is created according to the safety stock mentioned for the material or can be triggered from a requirement . For creating a PO, you need to have the scheduling agreement in place .After the MRP is run the schedule lines are generated which are nothing but the PO.
46.Define ‘Plant’ in SAP.
‘Plant’ in SAP can denote a manufacturing location, distribution center, or a warehouse. With unique numbers identifying each of the plants, though these are all not all necessarily financial entities, they can still be linked to a Business Area. The Plant is the place where you normally valuate the inventory in SAP. The system, however, checks for the inventory either at the Plant or Plant/Storage Location during an Order entry.
47.Explain the ‘Storage Location’ in SAP.
A sub-division of a plant, the ‘Storage Location,’ defines a location for materials that can be a warehouse, bin, or a storage area of raw materials/WIP/finished product. You will manage the physical inventory, material movement, picking, cycle counting, etc., at the storage-location level. In Warehouse Management, the storage location is further subdivided.
48.Explain the ‘Purchasing Organization’ in SAP.
This refers to the organizational structure in SAP that is responsible for procurement of materials. The ‘Purchasing Organization’ is the top-most organizational element in MM, and this can take any one of three forms such as (1) Cross-plant purchasing organizations (catering to more than one plant but within the same Company Code), (2) Plant-specific purchasing organizations (with a 1:1 relationship with the plant), and (3) Cross-company code purchasing organizations (catering to more than one Company Code). Entrusted with the activity of negotiating the price, delivery conditions, etc., of materials from vendors, the Purchasing Organization can further be subdivided into purchasing groups.
49.Explain the ‘Purchasing Group’ Concept in MM.
The ‘Purchasing Group’ carries out the actual activities of purchasing, and is assigned to a material in the material master. The activities of several purchasing organizations can be done by one purchasing group.
50.Explain the ‘Valuation Area’ Concept in MM.
The valuation of a material is done at the ‘Valuation Area,’ which can either be at the Company Code level or the Plant level. The level at which the valuation needs to happen is defined in the customizing. Note that once it is defined, you will not be able to change it later!
When the valuation is at the Company Code level, then the valuation of a material is uniform across the plants attached to that Company Code. On the other hand, if the valuation is at the plant level, then the value of the material is plantspecific and will vary from one plant to another. If you are using PP (Production Planning)/MRP in your company, then the valuation has to be at the plant level.
51.What is a ‘Factory Calendar’?
A ‘Factory Calendar’ is a calendar that is country-specific with a list of public holidays (maintained via the Holiday Calendar) and working days, which are Client-independent. The factory calendar helps in controlling goods issues/receipts. Each plant is assigned a factory calendar, and the calendar must be activated (through ‘CTS functionality’) before using it.
52.Explain How SD and MM are Connected in SAP.
The goods/services from a plant can be sold by one or more sales organizations. It is also possible that single sales organizations sells goods/services for several plants. When the sales organizations sells for more than one plant belonging to one or more Company Codes, then this is called inter-company sales, and will require you to make some special configurations in the system. A sales organization, attached to a Company Code, is further divided into distribution channels and divisions in SD. A division typically represents a product line, and is assigned to a material in the material master.
53.Outline the Functions Supported by ‘Material Master.’
The ‘Material Master’ is the central master record catering to various business functions in Logistics. The data stored in this master support a variety of business functions and operations such as:
Sales and Distribution
The data is stored, within a material master, at different organizational levels. The general data is valid for all the Company Codes at the Client level. The purchasing information is valid at the plant level. The sales information is valid at the sales organization/distribution channel. Lastly, when Warehouse Management is activated, the data is maintained at the warehouse number/storage type level.
54.Explain Why a ‘Material Master’ is Divided into ‘Views.’
Since the information in a material master needs to be maintained by a number of users across several modules, SAP has structured the master into a number of Views for facilitating easier access and updating of data. The views include:
Purchase Order text
Plant/Storage Location stock
55.What Information is Available in the ‘Accounting View’ of a ‘Material Master’?
The most important information maintained in the ‘Accounting View’ of a material master is the valuation class, which needs to be assigned to individual materials. The valuation class, in turn, helps in determining the relevant GL accounts for posting valuation-relevant transactions such as GR, GI, etc.
You will maintain the price control indicator in the accounting view, which enables determining how the stock of a material is to be valued (at Standard price (S) or Moving average price (V)).
56.Why do You Need ‘Material Types’ in MM?
One way to group materials is by ‘Material Type’ (the other being by Industry Sector’). This grouping helps determine what information or data is to be made available at the material master level for a particular material.
The material type (for example, FERT, HAWA, HALB, ROH, and so on) is used to control:
Which Views can be maintained on the master record
Which Fields are mandatory, optional, or for ‘display only’ in the material master
What kind of Procurement is allowed for that material (internal or external or both)
How to Number (Internal/External) and what Number Range is allowed
Whether Quantity and/or Value updating should be done in a particular Valuation Area
Which GL Accounts will be posted to (via the Valuation Class) during goods movement
The default Item Category Group (S&D)
The default Price Control Indicator (S or V) and
Whether the default Price Control Indicator is changeable during material master maintenance
57.Explain the ‘Price Control Indicator.’
The ‘Price Control Indicator’ is used by SAP to determine how a material will be valuated, by default. The indicator can be set to:
Standard Price (S) or
Moving Average Price (V)
When you set the indicator to ‘S,’ the system carries out all the inventory postings at the standard price. The variances due to a different price of a material in goods movement or invoice receipts if any, are all posted to price difference accounts. As a result, the standard price remains the same, unless it is changed intentionally by manual processing. This will be necessary only when the difference between the standard and moving average prices becomes very large. (While updating the price difference accounts, however, the system also updates the moving average price with these variances, so that you get a chance to adjust the standard price should the difference between the standard and moving average prices becomes very substantial.)
On the other hand, when you set the indicator to ‘V’ then all the goods receipts (GR) will be at the GR value. The system will then adjust the price in the material master by the GR price. However, if there is a difference between the moving average price of the material and the goods movement/invoice receipt, then the price difference is moved to the stock account, and the price of the material in the material master is adjusted accordingly.
58.Explain ‘Prices Maintenance’ for Materials Transferred from ‘Legacy’ to SAP.
Before you transfer the initial inventory from a legacy system to SAP, you need to create the relevant master data for the materials.
If you are planning to maintain a standard price for the materials, then you will create the material masters with ‘S’ as the price control indictor in SAP. With this control, when you enter the material inventory, the system valuates this stock with the standard price defined. In this case, you enter a new price and the system posts the price difference (between the standard price and the new price you entered) to a price difference account.
Similarly, if you are planning to maintain a moving average price for materials, then you will create the material masters with ‘V’ as the Price Control Indictor in SAP. With this control, when you enter the material inventory, the system valuates this stock with the moving average price defined. In this case, you enter a new price and the system adjusts the moving average price accordingly. If you enter only the quantity, and not any new price, the system continues to valuate the stock at the original moving average price, and the price of the material does not change.
59.What is the ‘Material Status’?
The ‘Material Status’ is a 2-digit code enabling you to control the usability of material for various MM and PP applications. This status key also controls warehouse management, transfers order instructions, quality inspection instructions, decides how the system behaves when a product cost estimate is created, and so on.
The material status can be maintained as (1) Plant-specific material status, (2) Cross-plant material status, and (3) Distribution material status.
60.What is the ‘EAN’?
The ‘EAN (International Article Number),’ equivalent to the UPC (Universal Product Code) of the United States, is an international standard number for identifying a material, which SAP allows you to assign (done in the ‘Eng./Design or Units of Measure’ screen) to the materials. The EAN is normally assigned to the manufacturer of a material. Made up of a prefix (to identify the country or company from where the material originates), article number, and a check digit (ensures correctness of an EAN number so that no incorrect entries are scanned or entered into the system).
61.What are Some of the ‘Partner Functions’ of a ‘Vendor’?
Through the definition of ‘Partner Functions’ in the Vendor Master, SAP helps to designate vendors for different roles. The partner role is designated by a 2-digit code.
PI Invoice Presented by
OA Ordering Address
GS Goods Supplier
AZ Payment Recipient
A partner schema (also known as a partner procedure) is assigned to a vendor account group. The procedure specifies which partner roles are ‘allowed’/‘mandatory’/‘can be changed’ for a vendor master with that account group. You may assign three different partner schemas to an account group, one for each level of purchasing data, i.e., one at the purchase organization level, one at the VSR level, and one at the plant level. This enables maintaining different partners at different organizational levels.
62.What is a ‘Batch’ in the Context of ‘Batch Management’?
Representing a quantity of material with a homogenous set of properties/characteristics produced during a particular cycle of manufacturing, a ‘Batch’ is a subset of inventory quantity, which cannot be reproduced again with the same properties. A batch is linked to the classification system, and you can use it only when the classification system has been set up properly for batch management.
batch is unique for a single material, and is unique at the Client level as well. That is, you will be able to use a batch number only once in the Client regardless of the plant and material. The batch will be known only in the plant where it was created. The batch numbers can either be manually assigned or system generated.
63.What are the Possible Values for ‘Procurement Types’?
The possible values for ‘Procurement Types’ are:
Both procurement types
64.What are the ‘prerequisites’ for an ‘MRP Run’?
The following are the ‘prerequisites’ for an MRP Run:
Valid MRP data for the material
Valid MRP type
Valid material status
65.What is an ‘MRP Area’?
An ‘MRP Area’ is not an organizational structure, but a unit for which you can carry out Consumption-based MRP. The MRP area is used to carry out MRP for the components provided to a sub-contractor. There are three types of MRP areas that you will come across:
MRP Area for Storage Locations
MRP Area for Subcontracting Vendor Stock
MRP Area for the Plant
66.What is an ‘MRP List’?
An ‘MRP List’ displays the results of the last ‘planning run.’ Using a ‘collective display’ format, you will be able to display planning details for a number of materials for a given set of ‘selection parameters.’
67.Explain the ‘Re-Order Point’ Procedure.
The ‘Re-Order Point’ is the level of inventory that triggers material procurement. Once the inventory falls below this level, you need to create the order proposal either manually or automatically by the system.
In the case of the manual re-order point procedure, you will define the reorder point and the safety stock in the material master. On the other hand, in the automatic re-order point procedure, the system will calculate the re-order point and the safety stock based on the next period’s consumption pattern.
68.Explain the ‘Inventory Management’ Submodule.
The ‘Inventory Management’ submodule deals with the GR/GI of materials from/into the inventory. It also manages the transfer of materials from one storage location to another. As an important element of MM, this module is integrated with SD, PP, QM, and PM modules.
69.What is ‘Goods Movement’?
‘Goods Movement’ represents an event causing a change in the stock, with the change being value or status, stock type, or quantity. It also represents the physical movement of stock from one location to another. Goods movement is classified into:
Receipt of goods/services
Issue of materials
70.What Happens During a ‘Goods Issue’?
The ‘Goods Issue (GI)’ results in a reduction in the stock quantity/value. The GI can be Planned (via sales order, production order, return delivery, delivery for internal, use etc.) or Unplanned (drawing a stock for a sample, scrapping, etc.).
The GI results in:
Creation of a Material/Accounting document
Update of Reservation for the issue (if any)
Update of GL accounts
Update of ‘points of consumption’ if applicable (cost center, project, etc.)
Update of Stock quantity
71.Explain ‘Stock Transfers.’
The physical movement of stock between locations is called a ‘Stock Transfer,’ which can be within a plant or between plants. Stock transfers can be carried out either in a single step or in two steps. The stock transfer may be from:
Company to Company
Plant to Plant
Storage Location to Storage Location
If there is a logical change in the stock type/status, then this kind of ‘transfer’ is called a ‘transfer posting.’ The transfer posting may be from:
Product to Product
Quality Inspection to Unrestricted Use
Consignment Store to Storage Location
72.What is a ‘Stock Type’?
Used in the determination of available stock of a material, the ‘Stock Type’ is the sub-division of inventory at a storage location based on the use of that inventory. In SAP, there are many kinds of stock types:
Unrestricted (use) stock (the physical stock that is always available at a plant/storage location)
Restricted (use) stock
Quality inspection stock (not counted for unrestricted use and may be made available for MRP)
Blocked stock (not to be counted as unrestricted stock and is not available for MRP)
Besides all of the above, which are all known as valuated stocks, you will also come across one more type called ‘GR blocked stock,’ which is a non-valuated stock.
The GR-blocked stock denotes all the stock accepted ‘conditionally’ from the vendors. This stock is not considered available for ‘unrestricted use.’ You will use the Movement Type 103 for the GR-blocked stock and Movement Type 101 is used for a normal GR.
73.Explain ‘Return Delivery.’
You will use ‘Return Delivery’ when you return goods to the supplier (vendor) for reasons such as damaged packaging, etc. Note that the ‘reason for return’ is mandatory as this will help you, later on, to analyze problems with a vendor. The system uses the Movement Type 122, and will create a return delivery slip, which will accompany the goods being returned.
If the ‘return’ is from a ‘GR-blocked stock,’ you need to use a different Movement Type: 104.
74.What are All the Various Types of ‘Physical Inventory’?
The following are the different types of ‘Physical Inventory’ in SAP MM:
Periodic inventory (All the stocks are physically counted on a ‘key date’ (balance sheet date), and all the stock movements are blocked during physical counting)
Cycle counting (Physical counting is done at periodical intervals)
Sampling (Randomly selected stocks are counted physically, and the system uses this information to ‘estimate’ stock value on a given date)
Continuous (Stocks are tracked continuously throughout the fiscal year, with physical stock taking once a year, at least!)
75.What is a ‘Material Ledger’?
A ‘Material Ledger’ is nothing but a tool for inventory accounting that provides new methods for ‘price control’ for ‘material valuation’ (you can store the material inventory values in more than one currency). It makes it possible to keep the ‘material price’ constant over a period of time (say, over the life of a production order). The moving average price field is used to store a ‘periodic price.’ This periodic price stays constant and is the price used for valuation until you close the material ledger. At closing, the periodic price is updated based on the actual value of invoice receipts received for that material during the period.
76.Explain ‘Split Valuation.’ Why is it Necessary?
‘Split Valuation’ allows substocks of the same material to be managed in different stock accounts. This allows substocks to be valuated separately, and every transaction is carried out at the substock level. So, when processing a transaction, it is necessary to mention the substock.
The ‘split valuation’ is necessary if the material has:
Various Levels of Quality
It is also required in situations where you need to make a distinction between ‘in-house produced materials’ and ‘materials procured externally,’ or if there is a distinction between ‘different deliveries.’
77.Explain the Basic Steps in ‘Configuring Split Valuation.’
The five basic steps for ‘Configuring Split Valuation’ are:
Activate ‘Split Valuation’
Define ‘Global Valuation Types’. For each Valuation type’ you need to specify: (a) whether ‘external’ purchase orders are allowed, (b) whether production orders are allowed, and (c) the account category reference.
Define ‘Global Valuation Categories’. For each valuation category specify: (a) default ‘valuation type’ to be used when purchase orders are created and whether this default can be changed, (b) default valuation type to be used when production orders are created and whether this default can be changed, and (c) whether a ‘valuation record’ should be created automatically when a GR is posted for a valuation type for which no record yet exists.
Allocate ‘Valuation Types’ to the ‘Valuation Categories’
Define which of the ‘Global Categories/Types’ apply to which ‘Valuation Areas’
78.Outline ‘Stock Valuation Methods’ for Material Revaluation.
There are three methods with which you can revaluate your stock for Balance Sheet purposes. Irrespective of the method you select, you will be able to valuate your stock either at the Company Code level or at the Valuation Area level:
LIFO (Last-In-First-Out): This method is based on the assumption that the materials received last were the ones issued/consumed first. The valuation is based on the initial receipt.
FIFO (First-In-First-Out): Here the assumption is that the materials received first are the ones consumed/issued first. So, the valuation is based on the most recent receipt. The FIFO method can also be used in conjunction with the lowest value method. By this you can determine whether the system should make a comparison between the FIFO determined price and the lowest value price. You can also determine whether the FIFO price should be updated in the material master record.
Lowest Value Method: Here, the stocks are valued at their original price or the current market price whichever is lower. This method is suitable when the inventory needs to be valued to take into account material obsolescence, physical deterioration, or changes in price levels.
79.How Does ‘Automatic Account Assignment’ Work in MM?
‘GL accounts’ are assigned to ‘Transaction Keys’ (BSX, WRX, PRD, UMG, GBB, etc.).
Transaction Keys identify which GL Accounts are to be debited or credited.
Transaction Keys are assigned to ‘Value Strings’ (for example, WA01).
‘Movement Types’ (for example, 901) are associated with a ‘Value String.’
80.Explain ‘Automatic Account Assignment’ Configuration in MM.
There are four steps required to complete the ‘Automatic Account Assignment’ configuration settings for MM:
Finalize the ‘valuation level.’
Activate the ‘valuation grouping code’ option. (For this you need to group valuation areas using valuation grouping codes.)
Maintain ‘valuation classes’ and ‘account category references’ and their linkage to ‘material types.’
Maintain the ‘GL accounts’ for each combination of Chart of accounts, valuation grouping code, valuation class, and transaction key.
You may use the ‘automatic account determination wizard’ to complete the configuration settings, as the wizard guides you step-by-step.
81.Explain the ‘Transaction Keys’ in MM.
Also known as ‘process keys,’ the ‘Transaction Keys’ are pre-defined in the system to enable transaction postings in Inventory Management and Accounting (Invoice Verification). For each of the movement types in MM, there is a value string that stores these possible transactions.
The pre-defined transaction keys are:
BSX (used in Inventory Postings)
WRX (used in GR/IR Clearing Postings)
PRD (used to post Cost/Price differences)
UMB (used to post Revenue/Expenses from revaluation)
GBB (used in offsetting entries in Stock postings)
BSX, WRX, and PRD are examples of transaction keys that are relevant for a GR with reference to a purchase order for a material with standard price control. The transaction key UMB is used when the standard price has changed and the movement is posted to a previous period. Likewise, GBB is used to identify the GL account to post to as the offsetting entry to the stock account (when not referencing a purchase order) such as miscellaneous goods receipts, goods issues for sales orders with no account assignment, and scrapping.
82.How Does the System Determine the Correct ‘GL a/c’ for a Posting?
Imagine that you are posting a goods movement.
Since the goods movement is from a plant, and the plant is assigned to a Company Code, the goods movement identifies the relevant Company Code.
As the Company Code has already been assigned to the Chart of Accounts, the system is able to identify the GL accounts.
The plant also determines the valuation area (and the optional ‘valuation grouping code’).
Since each movement type is assigned to a ‘value string’ which in turn is identified with a transaction key, the goods movement determines the correct transaction key.
Since each of the transaction keys is associated with the relevant GL accounts, through the value string, the movement type now identifies the relevant GL Account, and the transaction is posted.
83.What are the responsibilities of a technical consultant in an implementation project?
Preparation of techinical specifications, getting apporvals from functional consultant and PM,assitance to functioal consultant.
84.What are the main and sub modules in SAP?
85.What is ERP and SAP?and why inplementing SAP in an organization? Explain the special features of SAP over other ERPs?
SAP is an ERP package. SAP can be fit it any language. It is used to get exact data with a fraction of section which will be use fully for management to take correct decision in a short span of time. Using of sap means there is no need to maintain the
middle management in the organization because the CEO of the company is able to direct the executives direcltly with the system. SAP is able to integrate all functional organizational units togethere and retrieve exact data needed by management. Therefore, investing on middle management will become less. and the user will be able to acess instance reports using the logistic informaion systems in SAP.
86.Explain the business flow of an implementation project?
– Project prepration
– Business blue prints
– Fit gap analysis
87.Explain breifly about your role in current/previous project? (If you have one)
88.Explain your functional experience prior to SAP?
For this yo will give explanation depends of your previous experience.
89.Can you explain the modern technologies in SAP? Do you use this in your current project?
I think the ans is APO, BW, CRM, if its wrong pls guide me any body.
90.Explain the terms “AS IS” and “FIT GAP ANALYSIS”?
Business blue print stage is called as is process. Fit gap means, before implementing the SAP all the business data is in the form of documents, we cannot keep this data as is in the SAP. There should be a gap. So by filling this gap, we make configuration with the help of these documents. This is called as fit gap analysis. In this stage, we should analysis the gap between as is and is as process
91.What are the responsibilities of “CORE TEAM” and “FUNCTIONAL TEAM” in an implementation?
Core Team are the power users who are selected for the SAP implementation. The Functional Team gather the initial implementation requirement from these core team users who will be the bridge between the SAP Functional Team and their department users with the expert work knowledge.
92.How do you configure manual bank statement?
configuration is required during electronic bank statement not in manual bank statement. In manual bank statement you just have to enter the data on screen and save it.
93. What is the difference between profit center accounting and Profitability analysis?
profit center accounting is basically done for internal controlling purposes. It lets you determine the profit and loss using the cost of sale approach or period accounting approach. Here you can find the profit from an “area of responsibility or person” point of view.this is account based costing Whereas in Profitability analysis, market segments based on product , customer,order or any combination of these are studied to find wots the profit. PA provides information to the marketing,sales and planning department so that they can make decisions. PA has two forms account based and CO based.Both these are tools for profit management, and both are alternative. They are not same.
94.In SAP-HR, What is the landscape of your project?
Landscape in SAP consists the following:
1. IDES = Training Server
2. Development Server * Configuration (200 client) * Sandbox (210 client) * Data Change (220 client)
3. Quality Server * Standby (300 client) * Testing (310 client)
4. Production Server * Pre-Production (400 client) * Real Production (500 client)
95.What is the role of abapers? What is the Work Bench?
Abaper is a application programmer who retrieves the data from the database and show it to the end-user with the help of report..out of three layers of SAP the abaper position is on Application Layer in which SAP programs are develop and then transported to the Production server… Workbench… The ABAP Workbench contains several tools that allow you to edit specific repository objects. like ABAP Editor , Menu Painter etc…
96.How to integrate MM With Fico?
Value from MM to FI is defined in OBYC…. on the material master the flow of values are assigned on the Costing, Accounting, etc tabs where the system helps to post the necessary stock values into the appropriate GL accounts. Helps to determine, the GL accounts updated when there is a movement of goods.
97.What is difference between business area or cost center?
Business area is a place where the product or the produced components are valued in group or for the total transactions carried out, Right from procurement, production and sales of goods. Wheres Cost center is a particular area where the production or the project is taken up and expenditure is identified separately with a separate GL account
98.How to create Tax Calculation Procedure?
Tax calculation procedures based on the countries depended. one country is using deferment of tax procedures. We are creating new country also and at what type calculation procedures present is running on the country and it is assigned which country used.
99. How is scrap accounted in subcontracting?
The scrap or the process loss can be adjusted while doing a quality inspection of the material received after subcontracting.
100.How are the byproducts taken care of in subcontracting?
Byproducts can be taken care of by defining them in the BOM
101.In real time, How listing and exclusion is used?
Listing and exclusion is used in chemical and pharma industries for ex:-Particular customer is not having a valid license of selling some chemical/Medicines and he is ordering the same. in this case listing and exclusion is useful
102.What is the schema you use in Time Management?
Schema : TC00
103.What is the work relation between SAP-MM, SD and fi/co modules?
SAP is the integration of all the modules and the topics are very relevant to each other because basically its management skillsetgroup. From manufacturing the product/goods/services to reaching the customer. All the transaction process is depending on sales area, sales doc, item proposals, shipping, delivery and billing.