Understanding CS Fallback in LTE

LTE technology supports packet based services only, however 3GPP does specifies fallback for circuit switched services as well. To achieve this LTE architecture and network nodes require additional functionality, this blog is an attempt to provide overview for same. In LTE architecture, the circuit switched (CS) fallback in EPS enables the provisioning of voice and […]


LTE Handovers – Intra E-UTRAN Handover

Intra E-UTRAN Handover is used to hand over a UE from a source eNodeB to a target eNodeB using X2 when the MME is unchanged. In the scenario described here Serving GW is also unchanged. The presence of IP connectivity between the Serving GW and the source eNodeB, as well as between the Serving GW […]


LTE UE positioning in E-UTRAN

UE Positioning function is required to provide the mechanisms to support or assist the calculation of the geographical position of a UE. UE position knowledge can be used, for example, in support of Radio Resource Management functions, as well as location-based services for operators, subscribers, and third-party service providers. Positioning functionality provides a means to […]


LCS Architecture for LTE EPS

3GPP considered 5 architecture alternatives for LCS during study and selected the one explained further according to 3GPP Release 9. In the LCS architecture, an Evolved SMLC is directly attached to the MME. The objectives of this  evolution is to support location of an IMS emergency call,  avoid impacts to a location session due to an […]


Lawful Interception Architecture for LTE Evolved Packet System

Lawful Interception is a legally sanctioned official access to private communications. It is a security process in which a service provider or network operator collects and provides law enforcement officials with intercepted communications of private individuals or organizations. Lawful interception is always done in accordance with the applicable national or regional laws and technical regulations. […]


Long Term Evolution (LTE)

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is initiated by 3GPP to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with future technology evolutions and needs. 3GPP work on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started with the RAN Evolution Work Shop, 2 – 3 November 2004 in Toronto, Canada. The main targets for this evolution are increased […]


LTE Protocols & Specifications

In LTE architecture, core network includes Mobility Management Entity (MME), Serving Gateway  (SGW), Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW) where as E-UTRAN has E-UTRAN NodeB (eNB). With increased data rates, improved spectrum efficiency and packet-optimized system, LTE technology is set to drive machine to machine technology and data intensive applications. The figures shown below provide mapping […]